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Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

Spray and Combustion Characteristics of Biodiesel∕Diesel Blended Fuel in a Direct Injection Common-Rail Diesel Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
Hyun Kyu Suh

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Sungdong-gu, Seoul, 133-791, Koreahksuh@hanyang.ac.kr

Hyun Gu Roh

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Sungdong-gu, Seoul, 133-791, Korearohyungu@hanyang.ac.kr

Chang Sik Lee1

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Sungdong-gu, Seoul, 133-791, Koreacslee@hanyang.ac.kr

1

Corresponding author.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 130(3), 032807 (Mar 28, 2008) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2835354 History: Received April 17, 2007; Revised November 17, 2007; Published March 28, 2008

The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of the blending ratio and pilot injection on the spray and combustion characteristics of biodiesel fuel and compare these factors with those of diesel fuel in a direct injection common-rail diesel engine. In order to study the factors influencing the spray and combustion characteristics of biodiesel fuel, experiments involving exhaust emissions and engine performance were conducted at various biodiesel blending ratios and injection conditions for engine operating conditions. The macroscopic and microscopic spray characteristics of biodiesel fuel, such as injection rate, split injection effect, spray tip penetration, droplet diameter, and axial velocity distribution, were compared with the results from conventional diesel fuel. For biodiesel blended fuel, it was revealed that a higher injection pressure is needed to achieve the same injection rate at a higher blending ratio. The spray tip penetration of biodiesel fuel was similar to that of diesel. The atomization characteristics of biodiesel show that it has higher Sauter mean diameter and lower spray velocity than conventional diesel fuel due to high viscosity and surface tension. The peak combustion pressures of diesel and blending fuel increased with advanced injection timing and the combustion pressure of biodiesel fuel is higher than that of diesel fuel. As the pilot injection timing is retarded to 15deg of BTDC that is closed by the top dead center, the dissimilarities of diesel and blending fuels combustion pressure are reduced. It was found that the pilot injection enhanced the deteriorated spray and combustion characteristics of biodiesel fuel caused by different physical properties of the fuel.

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Copyright © 2008 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Spray visualization and droplet measuring system

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Figure 2

Four-cylinder test common-rail diesel engine

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Figure 3

Effect of injection quantity on the biodiesel fuel injection rate (BD5, Pinj=100MPa, Pamb=4MPa)

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Figure 4

Comparison of injection rate between single injection and pilot injection conditions (Pinj=100MPa, Pamb=4MPa)

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Figure 5

Comparison of spray evolution between single and pilot injection conditions (Pinj=100MPa, Pamb=4MPa): (a) Single injection condition (mm=12mg); (b) pilot injection condition (mp=2mg, mm=10mg)

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Figure 6

Comparison of spray tip penetration of diesel and blended biodiesel fuels (Pinj=100MPa, Pamb=4MPa): (a) Single injection condition; (b) pilot injection condition

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Figure 7

Droplet diameter distribution of diesel and blended biodiesel fuels (Pinj=80MPa, Pamb=0.1MPa): (a) Diesel fuel (D100); (b) biodiesel fuel (BD20)

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Figure 8

Axial mean velocity distribution of diesel and blended biodiesel fuels (Pinj=80MPa, Pamb=0.1MPa)

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Figure 9

Number of droplet distributions in single injection and pilot injection conditions (Pinj=80MPa, Pamb=0.1MPa): (a) Single injection condition (mm=12mg); (b) pilot injection condition (mp=2mg, mm=10mg)

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Figure 10

Combustion characteristics of diesel and biodiesel fuels in main injection conditions: (a) Comparison of diesel and biodiesel fuel; (b) effect of injection pressure

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Figure 11

Combustion characteristics of diesel and biodiesel fuels in pilot injection conditions: (a) Comparison of diesel and biodiesel fuel; (b) effect of injection pressure

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Figure 12

Effect of injection conditions on the IMEP and COVpmax: (a) IMEP; (b) COVpmax

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Figure 13

Exhaust emissions of diesel and biodiesel fuels: (a) CO, (b) HC, (c) NOx, and (d) soot

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