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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Effects of a Reacting Cross-Stream on Turbine Film Cooling

[+] Author and Article Information
Wesly S. Anderson, Marc D. Polanka, Joseph Zelina

Air Force Research Laboratory, Propulsion Directorate, Wright Patterson AFB, Dayton, OH 45433

Dave S. Evans

 Naval Air Systems Command, NAS, Patuxent River, MD 20670

Scott D. Stouffer, Garth R. Justinger

 University of Dayton Research Institute, Dayton, OH 45469

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 132(5), 051501 (Mar 03, 2010) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3204616 History: Received March 23, 2009; Revised June 02, 2009; Published March 03, 2010; Online March 03, 2010

Film cooling plays a critical role in providing effective thermal protection to components in modern gas turbine engines. A significant effort has been undertaken over the last 40 years to improve the distribution of coolant and to ensure that the airfoil is protected by this coolant from the hot gases in the freestream. This film, under conditions with high fuel-air ratios, may actually be detrimental to the underlying metal. The presence of unburned fuel from an upstream combustor may interact with this oxygen rich film coolant jet resulting in secondary combustion. The completion of the reactions can increase the gas temperature locally resulting in higher heat transfer to the airfoil directly along the path line of the film coolant jet. This secondary combustion could damage the turbine blade, resulting in costly repair, reduction in turbine life, or even engine failure. However, knowledge of film cooling in a reactive flow is very limited. The current study explores the interaction of cooling flow from typical cooling holes with the exhaust of a fuel-rich well-stirred reactor operating at high temperatures over a flat plate. Surface temperatures, heat flux, and heat transfer coefficients are calculated for a variety of reactor fuel-to-air ratios, cooling hole geometries, and blowing ratios. Emphasis is placed on the difference between a normal cylindrical hole, an inclined cylindrical hole, and a fan-shaped cooling hole. When both air and nitrogen are injected through the cooling holes, the changes in surface temperature can be directly correlated with the presence of the reaction. Photographs of the localized burning are presented to verify the extent and locations of the reaction.

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Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Conventional axial combustor (left) and ultracompact combustor (right) (5)

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Figure 2

WSR schematic, modified from Stouffer (12)

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Figure 3

Cooling insert geometries

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Figure 4

Flat plate heat transfer gauge and cooling hole insert location

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Figure 5

Angled hole visible burning for (a) M=0, (b) M=0.5, air, (c) M=1.0, air, (d) M=1.0, N2, and (e) M=1.5, air

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Figure 6

Angled hole heat flux as a function of equivalence ratio and coolant gas at x/D=20

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Figure 7

Normal hole heat flux as a function of equivalence ratio and coolant gas at x/D=20

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Figure 8

Fan shaped hole heat flux as a function of equivalence ratio and coolant gas at x/D=20

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Figure 9

Fan shaped hole heat flux as a function of equivalence ratio and coolant gas at x/D=75

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Figure 10

Comparison of cooling hole geometries: dependence of heff on M, Φ=0.6, and x/D=20

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Figure 11

Comparison of cooling hole geometries: dependence of heff on M, Φ=1.5, and x/D=20

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Figure 12

Comparison of cooling hole geometries: dependence of heff on M, Φ=1.5, and x/D=75

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