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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Controls, Diagnostics, and Instrumentation

Hybrid Wireless-Wired Optical Sensor for Extreme Temperature Measurement in Next Generation Energy Efficient Gas Turbines

[+] Author and Article Information
Nabeel A. Riza, Mumtaz Sheikh

Photonic Information Processing Systems Laboratory, CREOL, The College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Boulevard, Orlando, FL 32816

Frank Perez1

Photonic Information Processing Systems Laboratory, CREOL, The College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Boulevard, Orlando, FL 32816

1

Nuonics, Inc., 1862 Royal Majesty Court, Oviedo, FL 32765.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 132(5), 051601 (Mar 03, 2010) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3204509 History: Received March 05, 2009; Revised June 02, 2009; Published March 03, 2010; Online March 03, 2010

Accuracy, reliability, and long lifetimes are critical parameters for sensors measuring temperature in gas turbines of clean coal-fired power plants. Greener high efficiency next generation power plants need gas turbines operating at extremely high temperatures of 1500°C, where present thermocouple temperature probe technology fails to operate with reliable and accurate readings over long lifetimes. To solve this pressing problem, we have proposed the concept of a new hybrid class of all-silicon carbide (SiC) optical sensor, where a single crystal SiC optical chip is embedded in a sintered SiC tube assembly, forming a coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) matched all-SiC front-end probe. Because chip and host material are CTE matched, optimal handling of extreme thermal ramps and temperatures is possible. In this article, we demonstrate the first successful industrial combustor rig test of this hybrid all-SiC temperature sensor front-end probe indicating demonstrated probe structural robustness to 1600°C and rig test data to 1200°C. The design of the rig test sensor system is presented and data are analyzed.

Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

All-SiC front-end probe-based optical sensor system for extreme gas temperature measurements in combustion engines

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Figure 2

SiC temperature front-end probe shown in an (a) unassembled and (b) assembled fashion

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Figure 3

All-SiC temperature sensor deployed for a first test at Siemens rig facility

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Figure 4

The assembled sensor optical transceiver module top view

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Figure 5

Combustor average pressure readings of ∼100 psi (7 atm) measured during rig operations

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Figure 6

IR CCD camera (8.8×6.6 mm2 active area view) received laser beam snap shots during thermal shock stage indicating on/off oscillatory Fabry–Pérot étalon behavior of SiC optical chip due to the rapid thermal gradient. Left photo: power max and right photo: power min.

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Figure 7

After first rig test of probe, expected part front-end discoloration is seen due to chemical exposure in combustor refractory section

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Figure 8

Raw optical data recorded by the probe PD indicating the rig thermal ramp zone and the relative high temperature stabilization zone. Vertical axis is measured optical power in mW and horizontal axis is a time counter.

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Figure 9

Rig TC provided temperature reading during the Fig. 8 optical data acquisition period. This TC data is used for optical probe calibration. Vertical axis is measured temperature and horizontal axis is a time counter. A 43 min marker line indicates when the rig gas temperature near TC settles down in its high temperature range that is 23 min after thermal shock.

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Figure 10

15 min snap shot of optical power readings from probe during the stable ∼1107°C region of the rig operation with a standard deviation of ±2°C.

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Figure 11

TC data during the Fig. 9 data 15 min time period with a standard deviation of ±8.1°C

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Figure 12

Comparative optical probe and TC measured temperatures over the duration of the rig operation

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Figure 13

Comparative optical probe and TC measured temperatures over the zoomed in thermal ramp duration of the rig operation

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Figure 14

All-SiC probe and type-R high temperature thermocouple under oxyacetylene flame thermal and localized thermal ramp joint test with temperatures reaching 1600°C

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Figure 15

Condition of Viton seal used in the probe connector before and after 28 days in rig

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Figure 16

Probe condition showing copper sulfate deposits after 28 continuous days in the rig (available in color online)

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Figure 17

Photodetector dc value PT(dc) generated from filtering PT Fig. 8 experimental data against time

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Figure 18

Clamped photodetector dc value PBB(dc) against time after considering received laser power max/min swing

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Figure 19

Computed laser power PL from raw power PT data using Eq. 5 and plotted against time

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Figure 20

Zoomed in versions of Fig. 1 around the thermal ramp region

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