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Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

In-Cylinder Flow Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of a Four-Valve Spark Ignition Engine: Comparison Between Steady and Dynamic Tests

[+] Author and Article Information
Damian E. Ramajo

International Center for Computational Methods in Engineering (CIMEC), INTEC-Universidad Nacional del Litoral-CONICET, Güemes 3450, S3000GLN Santa Fe, Argentinadramajo@santafe-conicet.gov.ar

Norberto M. Nigro

International Center for Computational Methods in Engineering (CIMEC), INTEC-Universidad Nacional del Litoral-CONICET, Güemes 3450, S3000GLN Santa Fe, Argentina

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 132(5), 052804 (Mar 05, 2010) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4000265 History: Received March 05, 2009; Revised September 07, 2009; Published March 05, 2010; Online March 05, 2010

Numerical and experimental techniques were applied in order to study the in-cylinder flow field in a commercial four-valve per cylinder spark ignition engine. Investigation was aimed at analyzing the generation and evolution of tumble-vortex structures during the intake and compression strokes, and the capacity of this engine to promote turbulence enhancement during tumble degradation at the end of the compression stroke. For these purposes, three different approaches were analyzed. First, steady flow rig tests were experimentally carried out, and then reproduced by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Once CFD was assessed, cold dynamic simulations of the full engine cycle were performed for several engine speeds (1500 rpm, 3000 rpm, and 4500 rpm). Steady and cold dynamic results were compared in order to assess the feasibility of the former to quantify the in-cylinder flow. After that, combustion was incorporated by means of a homogeneous heat source, and dynamic boundary conditions were introduced in order to approach real engine conditions. The combustion model estimates the burning rate as a function of some averaged in-cylinder flow variables (temperature, pressure, turbulent intensity, and piston position). Results were employed to characterize the in-cylinder flow field of the engine and to establish similarities and differences between the three performed tests that are currently used to estimate the engine mean flow characteristics (steady flow rig, and cold and real dynamic simulations).

Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Sketch of the tumble bench employed

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Figure 2

Computational model

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Figure 3

Different kinds of domains employed to simulate the whole engine cycle

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Figure 4

Discharge coefficients (CD and Cf); upper: intake system; bottom: exhaust system

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Figure 5

Numerical and experimental results from swirl tests; upper: swirl momentum; bottom: mass flow rate

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Figure 6

Mass flow rate distribution around one valve curtain when only one valve is opened (dashed line) and when both valves are equally opened (solid line)

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Figure 7

Numerical and experimental results from tumble tests for P2 and P4 measurement positions

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Figure 8

Numerical results for four strategies to produce angular momentum (swirl or tumble); upper: angular momentum; bottom: mass flow rate

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Figure 9

Evolution of flow during the intake and compression strokes on a plane cutting one intake valve

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Figure 10

Tumble momentum (upper) and turbulent kinetic energy (bottom) for the three engine speeds

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Figure 11

Mass flow distribution around one valve curtain for several valve lifts and steady and cold dynamic simulations

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Figure 12

Upper: tumble momentum as a function of valve lift for steady and dynamic tests; bottom: mass flow rate along the intake process

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Figure 13

Mass flow rate for cold (upper) and real (bottom) dynamic simulations

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Figure 14

Tumble momentum MT (upper) and turbulent kinetic energy k (bottom) for the three engine speeds

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Figure 15

Combustion variables for 1500 rpm (upper) and burning velocity (bottom) the for three engine speeds

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