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Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

Characterization of Particulate Matter Emissions From a Four-Stroke, Lean-Burn, Natural Gas Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
Kris Quillen, Maren Bennett

Engines and Energy Conversion Laboratory, Colorado State University, 430 North College Avenue, Fort Collins, CO 80524

John Volckens

Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, 1681 Campus Delivery, Fort Collins, CO 80523

Rudolf H. Stanglmaier

Entwicklung, Märkishes Werk GmbH, Haus Heide 21, 58553 Halver, Deutschland

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 130(5), 052807 (Jun 13, 2008) (5 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2906218 History: Received November 22, 2007; Revised January 13, 2008; Published June 13, 2008

Regulatory agencies are becoming increasingly concerned with particulate emissions as the health and environmental effects are becoming better understood. While much research has been performed on diesel engines, little is known about particulate matter (PM) emissions from natural gas internal combustion engines. In this project, tests were conducted on a Waukesha VGF F18 natural gas engine running at full load. PM10 combustion emissions were collected on teflon and quartz filters and a scanning mobility particle sizer was used to determine the particle size distribution. Tests were performed at 4–7% exhaust oxygen (O2) levels. Overall, it was found that a large number of small particles were emitted from this engine. The total mass based PM emissions were found to be 0.0148gmbkWh, which is slightly greater than the Tier-4 nonroad diesel particulate emission standard. Particle distributions revealed that the geometric mean diameter of the natural gas particles was approximately 30nm and did not change with air to fuel ratio. Particulate concentrations were found to decrease at leaner engine operating conditions. Results showed a strong correlation between the NOx and particle concentrations, while an inverse correlation between CO and particle concentrations was revealed.

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Copyright © 2008 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 2

Dilution tunnel. 1: HEPA filter; 2: turbine flow meter; 3: ball valve; 4: activated charcoal filter; 5: exhaust sample line (heated, flexible); 6: venturi flow meter; 7: pump; 8: thermocouple; 9: residence chamber; 10: humidity sensor; 11: SMPS and cascade impactor sampling ports; 12: rotometer; 13: filter pack; 14: mass flow controller; and 15: PM10 cyclone.

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Figure 3

Particle size distribution

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Figure 4

Total PM count versus exhaust O2

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Figure 5

Brake specific total particulate count

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Figure 6

GMD and GSD versus exhaust O2

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Figure 7

PM-NOx and PM-CO trade-off

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Figure 8

COV of IMEP of Cylinder 6 and the average for all cylinders

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Figure 1

Particulate sample probe placement

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