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Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

Results From an Engine Cycle Simulation of Compression Ratio and Expansion Ratio Effects on Engine Performance

[+] Author and Article Information
Jerald A. Caton

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-3123jcaton@tamu.edu

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 130(5), 052809 (Jun 19, 2008) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2939013 History: Received November 06, 2007; Revised November 07, 2007; Published June 19, 2008

This investigation quantified the effects of compression ratio (CR) and expansion ratio (ER) on performance, efficiency, and second law parameters for an automotive, spark-ignition engine. The well known increase in engine performance for increasing CR and ER is demonstrated. These increases for brake engine performance are modest for CRs greater than about 10 for the conditions studied. The results demonstrated that the increasing friction and heat losses for the higher CRs are of the same order as the thermodynamic gains. Also, the results included the destruction of availability during combustion. For a part load condition, the availability destroyed decreased from about 23% to 21% for CRs of 4 and 10, respectively. In addition, this study examined cases with greater ERs than CRs. The overall cycle for these cases is often called an “Atkinson” cycle. For most cases, the thermal efficiency first increased as ER increased, attained a maximum efficiency, and then decreased. The decrease in efficiency after the maximum value was due to the increased heat losses, increased friction, and ineffective exhaust processes (due to the reduced cylinder pressure at the time of exhaust valve opening). For part load cases, the higher ER provided only modest gains due to the increased pumping losses associated with the constant load requirement. For the wide open throttle cases, however, the higher ERs provided significant gains. For example, for a compression ratio of 10, expansion ratios of 10 and 30 provided brake thermal efficiencies of about 34% and 43%, respectively. Although the net thermodynamic gains are significant, large ERs such as 30 may not be practical in most applications.

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Copyright © 2008 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Indicated thermal efficiencies as functions of CR for two ideal “Otto” cycles, for a part load (bmep=325kPa) case and for a WOT case

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Figure 2

Relative energy values as functions of CR for the part load case

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Figure 3

Relative availability values as functions of CR for the part load case

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Figure 4

Availability destroyed during the combustion process as functions of CR for the part load and WOT cases

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Figure 5

Cylinder volume as a function of crank angle for a CR of 15 and for ERs of 15 (dashed lines) and 20 (solid lines). Schematic of engine cylinder shown on the right side.

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Figure 6

Brake thermal efficiency as functions of the ER for the base case for three CRs

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Figure 7

Exhaust and intake flow rates as functions of crank angle for the base case for a CR of 15 and for ERs of 15 (dashed lines) and 20 (solid lines)

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Figure 8

Brake thermal efficiency as a function of ER for CRs of 6, 10, and 15 for an engine speed of 1400rpm and an inlet manifold pressure of 95kPa (WOT)

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Figure 9

Log of cylinder pressure as a function of log of cylinder volume for a CR of 15 and ERs of 15 and 44 for an engine speed of 1400rpm and an inlet manifold pressure of 95kPa (WOT)

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Figure 10

Mass flow rates as a function of crank angle for a CR of 15 and two ERs (15 and 44) for an engine speed of 1400rpm and an inlet manifold pressure of 95kPa (WOT)

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