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Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

Controlling Backfire for a Hydrogen-Fueled Engine Using External Mixture Injection

[+] Author and Article Information
T. C. Huynh, J. K. Kang, K. C. Noh, Jong T. Lee

School of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Jangan-gu, Suwon 440-746, Korea

J. A. Caton

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-3123

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 130(6), 062804 (Aug 21, 2008) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2940353 History: Received November 19, 2007; Revised December 17, 2007; Published August 21, 2008

The development of a hydrogen-fueled engine using external mixture injection (e.g., using port or manifold fuel injection) with high efficiency and high power is dependent on the control of backfire. This work has developed a method to control backfire by reducing the valve overlap period while maintaining or improving engine performance. For this goal, a single-cylinder hydrogen-fueled research engine with a mechanical continuous variable valve timing system was developed. This facility provides a wide range of valve overlap periods that can be continuously and independently varied during firing operation. By using this research engine, the behavior of backfire occurrence and engine performance are determined as functions of the valve overlap period for fuel-air equivalence ratios between 0.3 and 1.2. The results showed that the developed hydrogen-fueled research engine with the mechanical continuous variable valve timing system has similar performance to a conventional engine with fixed valve timings, and is especially effective in controlling the valve overlap period. Backfire occurrence is reduced with a decrease in the valve overlap period, and is also significantly decreased even under operating conditions with the same volumetric efficiency. These results demonstrate that decreasing the valve overlap period may be one of the methods for controlling backfire in a hydrogen-fueled engine while maintaining or improving performance.

Copyright © 2008 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Single-cylinder hydrogen-fueled engine with the MCVVT system

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Figure 2

Variation of intake/exhaust cam phasing with displacement of timing gears

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Figure 3

Comparison of engine power with and without the MCVVT system as engine speed increases

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Figure 4

Schematic of complete experimental system

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Figure 5

Histories of cylinder pressure and inlet pressure once backfire occurs

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Figure 6

The BFL equivalence ratio as a function of the VOP at 1600rpm for naturally aspirated cases (energy input not equal)

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Figure 7

Brake torque with respect to VOP for each fuel-air equivalence ratio for naturally aspirated cases (not equal energy input)

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Figure 8

Maximum combustion temperatures as functions of the VOP for each fuel-air equivalence ratio for naturally aspirated cases (energy input not equal)

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Figure 9

The BFL equivalence ratio as a function of VOP for the case where the energy input is equal to the case for a VOP of 30deg CA

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Figure 10

Manometer reading for inlet mass flow rate as functions of VOP for naturally aspirated case (different supplied energy) and supercharged case (compensated case; i.e., supplied energy equal to the VOP of 30deg CA case)

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Figure 11

Combustion duration as a function of VOP for supplied energy equal to the VOP of 30deg CA

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Figure 12

Total heat release as a function of VOP for four equivalence ratios for supplied energy equal to the VOP of 30deg CA

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Figure 13

In-cylinder pressure and heat release versus crank angle for each VOP with compensation to a VOP of 30deg CA

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Figure 14

Brake torque with increase in fuel-air equivalence ratio and limitation of backfire occurrence ratio for naturally aspirated cases (energy input not equal)

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Figure 15

Brake torque with increase in fuel-air equivalence ratio for equal energy compensation to a VOP of 30deg CA

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Figure 16

BTE as a function of fuel-air equivalence ratio for equal energy compensation to a VOP of 30deg CA

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Figure 17

Schematic of the MCVVT system

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Figure 18

The main components of the MCVVT system

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