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Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

An Improved Phenomenological Soot Formation Submodel for Three-Dimensional Diesel Engine Simulations: Extension to Agglomeration of Particles into Clusters

[+] Author and Article Information
Joan Boulanger

Gas Turbine Laboratory, Institute for Aerospace Research, National Research Council Canada, 1200 Montréal Road, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0R6, Canadajoan.boulanger@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca

W. Stuart Neill, Fengshan Liu, Gregory J. Smallwood

 Institute for Chemical Process and Environmental Technology, National Research Council Canada, 1200 Montréal Road, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0R6, Canada

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 130(6), 062808 (Aug 22, 2008) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2939003 History: Received April 30, 2007; Revised February 15, 2008; Published August 22, 2008

An extension to a phenomenological submodel for soot formation to include soot agglomeration effects is developed. The improved submodel was incorporated into a commercial computational fluid dynamics code and was used to investigate soot formation in a heavy-duty diesel engine. The results of the numerical simulation show that the soot oxidation process is reduced close to the combustion chamber walls, due to heat loss, such that larger soot particles and clusters are predicted in an annular volume at the end of the combustion cycle. These results are consistent with available in-cylinder experimental data and suggest that the cylinder of a diesel engine must be split into several volumes, each of them with a different role regarding soot formation.

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Copyright © 2008 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Soot formation history in the cylinder sector: (a) mass, (b) primary particle number, (c) root mean cubic diameter, (d) precursor particle number, (e) cluster number, and (f) aggregated particles; line: 0% EGR, dashed: 8% EGR, and dots: 0% EGR, no threshold diameter (dpl=0)

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Figure 2

Distribution of cluster size in terms of particle number; open 0% EGR, and shaded 8% EGR

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Figure 3

(a) Primary particle location (EVO). Left: density number isosurface, 2.3×1014m−3; range (1.5×1013m−3, 3.3×1014m−3). Right: diameter isosurface. Internal 20nm. External 30nm. Range (0nm, 42nm), (b) Cluster location (EVO). Left: density number isosurface, 1.2×1013m−3; range (1.5×1011m−3, 1.6×1013m−3). Right: particles per cluster isosurface 14; range (4, 17). Note that the different sectors are the same computational sector representing different quantities.

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Figure 4

(a) Primary particle diameter field. Internal isosurface: 17.5nm. External isosurface: 35nm. (b) Cluster size (number of particles) field. Internal isosurface: 7. External isosurface: 16. (c) Cluster size (apparent diameter (Ref. 5), dc) field. Internal isosurface: 20nm. External isosurface: 120nm.

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Figure 5

Sequence of formation of the soot. Left: cluster density number isosurface, 1×1013kg−1. Middle: soot particle density number isosurface, 1×1013kg−1. Right: radical density number isosurface, 1×1013kg−1. Transparent isotemperature at 1500K. (a) At radical appearance (CA=9.6 ATDC). (b) Close to end of injection (CA=11.7 ATDC). (c) At cluster appearance (CA=18.0 ATDC). (d) At radical disappearance (CA=22.1 ATDC). (e) At full evaporation (CA=34.7 ATDC). Note that the different sectors are the same computational sector representing different quantities.

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 6

Sequence of formation of the soot. From left to right. Particle per cluster isosurface=16. Particle per cluster isosurface=7. Primary particle size isosurface=17.5nm. Primary particle size isosurface=35nm. (a) Appearance of particles larger than 45nm (CA=9.6 ATDC). (b) Close to the end of injection (CA=13.8 ATDC). (c) Appearance of clusters larger than seven particles (CA=26.3 ATDC). (d) End of evaporation (CA=34.7 ATDC). (e) Appearance of clusters larger than 16 particles (CA=72.7 ATDC). (f) CA=93.3 ATDC. Note that the different sectors are the same computational sector representing different quantities.

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