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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Microturbines and Small Turbomachinery

Performance Benefits of a Portable Hybrid Micro-Gas Turbine Power System for Automotive Applications

[+] Author and Article Information
Fanos Christodoulou

 Endress+Hauser Flowtec AG, CH-4153 Reinach BL, Switzerland

Panagiotis Giannakakis

Department of Power and Propulsion, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL, United Kingdom

Anestis I. Kalfas

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki, Greece

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 133(2), 022301 (Oct 29, 2010) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4002041 History: Received May 05, 2010; Revised May 23, 2010; Published October 29, 2010; Online October 29, 2010

The lower fuel burn and pollutant emissions of hybrid electric vehicles give a strong motivation and encourage further investigations in this field. The know-how on hybrid vehicle technology is maturing, and the reliability of such power schemes is being tested in the mass production. The current research effort is to investigate novel configurations, which could achieve further performance benefits. This paper presents an assessment of a novel hybrid configuration comprising a micro-gas turbine, a battery bank, and a traction motor, focusing on its potential contribution to the reduction in fuel burn and emissions. The power required for the propulsion of the vehicle is provided by the electric motor. The electric power is stored by the batteries, which are charged by a periodic function of the micro-gas turbine. The micro-gas turbine starts up when the battery depth of discharge exceeds 80%, and its function continues until the batteries are full. The performance of the vehicle is investigated using an integrated software platform. The calculated acceleration performance and fuel economy are compared with those of conventional vehicles of the same power. The sensitivity of the results to the variation in the vehicle parameters such as mass, kinetic energy recovery, and battery type is calculated to identify the conditions under which the application of this hybrid technology offers potential benefits. The results indicate that if no mass penalties are incurred by the installation of additional components, the fuel savings can exceed 23%. However, an increase in the vehicle’s weight can shrink this benefit especially in the case of light vehicles. Lightweight batteries and kinetic energy recovery systems are deemed essential, enabling technologies for a realistic application of this hybrid system.

Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Vehicle configuration

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Figure 2

Forces acting on a vehicle

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Figure 3

New European driving cycle

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Figure 4

Electric motor characteristics

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Figure 6

Open circuit voltage as a function of DoD for NiCd battery

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Figure 7

Open circuit voltage as a function of DoD for Li-ion battery

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Figure 8

Comparison of the simulated results with manufacturer data for a 50 A h, 6 V NiCd battery. Solid line: model; dashed line: measured data.

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Figure 9

Vehicle’s acceleration 0–100 km/h electric motor power 150 kW and torque 650 N m

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Vehicle’s acceleration 0–100 km/h electric motor power 102 kW and torque 150 N m

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Figure 11

Current supplied by the battery during acceleration

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Figure 12

Comparison of the acceleration achieved by the microgas turbine vehicle and conventional vehicles having the same power

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Figure 13

Fuel consumption as a function of vehicle weight and kinetic energy recovery. Asterisk: light conventional vehicle reference; square point: heavy conventional vehicle reference.

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Figure 14

Discharge current at NEDC for vehicle mass of 1400 kg

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Figure 15

Discharge current at NEDC for vehicle mass of 2000 kg

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Figure 16

Fuel economy sensitivity to engine mass for two different vehicle weights

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Figure 17

Fuel economy sensitivity to engine mass for two different kinetic energy recovery values

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Figure 18

Hybrid vehicle added components mass penalty effect. Light vehicle relative to asterisk in Fig. 1.

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Figure 19

Hybrid vehicle added components mass penalty effect. Heavy vehicle relative to square point in Fig. 1.

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Figure 20

Comparison of noise emitted by diesel engines and microgas turbine

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