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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

# Time Scale Model for the Prediction of the Onset of Flame Flashback Driven by Combustion Induced Vortex Breakdown

[+] Author and Article Information
M. Konle

Lehrstuhl für Thermodynamik, TU München, Boltzmannstrasse 15, Garching D-85748, Germanykonle@td.mw.tum.de

T. Sattelmayer

Lehrstuhl für Thermodynamik, TU München, Boltzmannstrasse 15, Garching D-85748, Germany

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 132(4), 041503 (Jan 27, 2010) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4000123 History: Received April 09, 2009; Revised April 14, 2009; Published January 27, 2010; Online January 27, 2010

## Abstract

Flame flashback driven by combustion induced vortex breakdown (CIVB) represents one of the most severe reliability problems of modern gas turbines with swirl stabilized combustors. Former experimental investigations of this topic with a 500 kW burner delivered a model for the prediction of the CIVB occurrence for moderate to high mass flow rates. This model is based on a time scale comparison. The characteristic time scales were chosen following the idea that quenching at the flame tip is the dominating effect preventing upstream flame propagation in the center of the vortex flow. Additional numerical investigations showed that the relative position of the flame regarding the recirculation zone influences the interaction of the flame and flow field. The recent analysis on turbulence and chemical reaction of data acquired with high speed measurement techniques applied during the CIVB driven flame propagation by the authors lead to the extension of the prediction model. As the corrugated flame regimes at the flame tip prevails at low to moderate mass flow rates, a more precise prediction in this range of mass flow rates is achieved using a characteristic burnout time $τb∼1/Sl$ for the reactive volume. This paper presents first this new idea, confirms it then with numerical as well as experimental data, and extends finally the former model to a prediction tool that can be applied in the full mass flow range of swirl burners.

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## Figures

Figure 1

Instantaneous image of the propagating bubble and flame: the reaction layer is only moderately corrugated (13)

Figure 2

Burning regime in the core flow of the investigated burners in the Borghi diagram

Figure 3

Distribution of the instantaneous axial distance between the stagnation point of the recirculation bubble and flame tip for two operation points

Figure 4

Principle of the prediction model extension: invariant reactive volume between corrugated flame front and bubble contour at the onset of CIVB

Figure 5

Scheme of the investigated TD1 burner

Figure 6

Experimental CIVB limits and prediction for the TD1 burner with s=22 mm and d=12 mm

Figure 7

Experimental CIVB limits and prediction for variation in the axial inlet diameter (configurations: d=9 mm and d=15 mm)

Figure 8

Influence of the preheat temperature on the CIVB limits and prediction

Figure 9

Experimental CIVB limits and prediction for the burner geometry investigated by Kröner (11) with the coupled correlation laws

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