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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Microturbines and Small Turbomachinery

Development of a 3 kW Microturbine for CHP Applications

[+] Author and Article Information
W. P. J. Visser

 Micro Turbine Technology MTT b.v., De Rondom 1, 5612 AP Eindhoven, The Netherlandswvisser@xs4all.nl

S. A. Shakariyants

 Micro Turbine Technology MTT b.v., De Rondom 1, 5612 AP Eindhoven, The Netherlandssavad@mtt-eu.com

M. Oostveen

 Micro Turbine Technology MTT b.v., De Rondom 1, 5612 AP Eindhoven, The Netherlandsmark@mtt-eu.com

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 133(4), 042301 (Nov 22, 2010) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4002156 History: Received April 13, 2010; Revised June 01, 2010; Published November 22, 2010; Online November 22, 2010

Combined heat and power (CHP) concepts for small-scale distributed power generation offer significant potential for saving energy and reducing CO2 emissions. Microturbines are an interesting candidate for small CHP systems with advantages in terms of performance, size, noise, and costs. MTT is developing a 3 kW recuperated microturbine for micro CHP applications for large households and for truck combined APU-heating systems. To minimize costs, off-the-shelf automotive turbocharger technology has been used for the turbomachinery. During recent years, turbocharger turbomachinery performance and efficiencies have significantly increased, even for very small sizes. At the same time, efficient high-speed motor-generators have become available at relatively low prices. The development of a concept demonstrator started in May 2008. This program phase included a cycle analysis and component selection study around off-the-shelf turbomachinery, design of a custom combustor, recuperator and generator, and a test program. In this paper, results of the cycle definition, conceptual design and component matching study are presented. Next, the development of a detailed performance model is described and performance prediction results are given. Also, results of the test program and test analysis work are presented. Finally, from the conclusion of the demonstrator phase an outlook is given on the prototype design and performance, which will be the next phase of the development program.

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Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Simplified GSP model of MTT recuperated cycle with station numbers

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Figure 2

Reference case thermal efficiency as a function of PRc, TIT, and Eff (carpets from bottom to top represent simple cycle, 70%, 80%, and 90% recuperator effectiveness, respectively)

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Figure 3

Recuperator gas-side inlet temperature (carpets from right to left represent simple cycle, 70%, 80%, and 90% recuperator effectiveness, respectively)

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Figure 4

Exhaust gas conditions (carpets from top to bottom represent simple cycle, 70%, 80%, and 90% recuperator effectiveness, respectively)

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Figure 5

Best case performance (carpets from bottom to top represent simple cycle, 70%, 80%, and 90% recuperator effectiveness, respectively)

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Figure 6

Turbine flow capacities (WC4) for various reference case cycles (carpets from right to left represent simple cycle, 70%, 80%, and 90% recuperator effectiveness, respectively)

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Figure 8

Liner stability loop measured under atmospheric conditions scaled for a nonrecuperated cycle

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Figure 9

MTT microturbine test rig

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Figure 10

Losses overview

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Figure 11

Recuperator pressure loss and effectiveness during warm up

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Figure 12

Cycle pressure ratio (PRc) and recuperator pressure loss effects on efficiency and power output (PR2_rec=1-lumped recuperator pressure loss, top carpets represent TIT=1300 K and bottom carpets TIT=1250 K cases)

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