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Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

Validation of the Fuel Saving Potential of Downsized and Supercharged Hybrid Pneumatic Engines Using Vehicle Emulation Experiments

[+] Author and Article Information
Christian Dönitz1

Institute for Dynamic Systems and Control, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerlandchristian.doenitz@alumni.ethz.ch

Christoph Voser

Institute for Dynamic Systems and Control, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerlandchristoph.voser@idsc.mavt.ethz.ch

Iulian Vasile

Institute for Dynamic Systems and Control, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerlandiulian.vasile@alumni.ethz.ch

Christopher Onder

Institute for Dynamic Systems and Control, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerlandchristopher.onder@idsc.mavt.ethz.ch

Lino Guzzella

Institute for Dynamic Systems and Control, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerlandlino.guzzella@idsc.mavt.ethz.ch

1

Corresponding author.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 133(9), 092801 (Apr 14, 2011) (13 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4002910 History: Received September 23, 2009; Revised October 06, 2010; Published April 14, 2011; Online April 14, 2011

The pneumatic hybridization of power trains is especially effective when it is combined with strong downsizing and supercharging of spark ignited engines. This paper presents measurement results obtained from such an engine. Specifically, performance measurements for all additional engine modes are shown. The pneumatic motor mode and the pneumatic pump mode are individually optimized over their whole operating range for maximum recuperation efficiency. Jointly with the conventional combustion mode and the pneumatic supercharged mode, they are implemented in one engine control system, thereby enabling the switching between all modes. A dynamometer simulates the longitudinal dynamics of two series production vehicles for the modified engine. This experimental setup, defined as emulation, is used to accurately measure the engine’s fuel consumption in the MVEG-95 and federal test procedure (FTP) drive cycles. Causal and noncausal energy management strategies are presented and used for choosing the engine mode during a drive cycle. Fuel savings of up to 35% are measured when comparing the modified engine to the vehicles’ standard engines with the same rated power. Hybrid pneumatic vehicles (HPVs) may prove to be a viable alternative to hybrid electric vehicles since fuel savings and driveability are comparable, while the added cost is expected to be substantially lower for HPVs.

Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Overview of (rough) valve event ranges determining actuation requirements. TC=top dead center, BC=bottom dead center.

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Figure 2

Simplified, double-logarithmic p-V diagrams showing the additional four-stroke engine modes: (a) pneumatic pump mode, (b) pneumatic motor mode, and (c) pneumatic supercharged mode. Opening (O) and closing (C) events for the valves are shown.

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Figure 3

Schematic of the downsized and supercharged hybrid pneumatic SI engine

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Figure 4

Fuel saving potential for a 1450 kg vehicle in the MVEG-95 drive cycle, FV: fully variable valve actuation for all engine valves

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Figure 5

EHVS commands for charge valve actuation and measured lift curve

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Figure 6

Measurement versus simulation: example of a pump cycle

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Figure 9

Transferred air mass per cycle at optimal COPpmot, corresponding effective torque and optimal COPpmot for pneumatic motor mode

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Figure 10

Measured maximum recuperation efficiency (%)

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Figure 11

Operating range limitations of pneumatic engine modes

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Figure 12

Measurements: transferred air mass as a function of tMV1 and pin; N=2000 rpm, pT=9 bars

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Figure 13

Measurement: pneumatic supercharged torque step, N=2250 rpm; BC=bottom dead center and TC=top dead center.

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Figure 19

Top row: optimal CV actuation parameters for maximum mass transfer in pneumatic pump mode. Bottom row: optimal CV actuation parameters for maximum efficiency in pneumatic motor mode. Bottom dead center, start of compression corresponds to 0 deg crank angle (CA).

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Figure 18

FTP vehicle emulation measurement results for a Nissan Micra: engine and driver modes, tank pressure trajectory, and normalized vehicle velocity deviation. Energy management: causal.

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Figure 17

MVEG-95 vehicle emulation measurement results for a VW Polo: engine and driver modes, tank pressure trajectory, and normalized vehicle velocity deviation. Energy management: DP.

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Figure 16

Control structure for pneumatic pump mode (top) and pneumatic motor mode (bottom)

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Figure 15

Vehicle emulation control structure

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Figure 14

Measurement: overcoming the turbo lag, N=2000 rpm.

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Figure 8

Pump mode measurements: maximum mass transfer, corresponding torque at maximum mass transfer, and resulting corresponding efficiency

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Figure 7

Measurement: optimized tank charging for different engine speeds

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