Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

Tri-Axial Force Measurements on the Cylinder of a Motored SI Engine Operated on Lubricants of Differing Viscosity

[+] Author and Article Information
Bryan O’Rourke

 Cummins Inc., 500 Jackson St., Columbus, IN 47201-6258

Donald Radford

 Colorado State University Fort Collins, CO 80523-1063

Rudolf Stanglmaier

 Maerkisches Werk GmbH Haus Heide 21, D-58553 Halver

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 132(9), 092807 (Jun 18, 2010) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4000608 History: Received May 27, 2009; Revised June 04, 2009; Published June 18, 2010; Online June 18, 2010

Friction is a determining factor in the efficiency and performance of internal combustion engines. Losses in the form of friction work typically account for 10–20% of an engine’s output. Improvements in the friction characteristics of the power cylinder assembly are essential for reducing total engine friction and improving the mechanical efficiency of internal combustion engines. This paper describes the development and implementation of a new concept of the “floating liner” engine at Colorado State University that allows 0.5 crank angle deg resolved measurement of the forces on the cylinder along three axes—in the axial direction, the thrust direction, and along the wrist pin. Three different lubricants with differing properties were tested to observe the friction characteristics of each. The experimental results showed that the floating liner engine was able to resolve changes in friction characteristics coinciding with changes in lubricant viscosity and temperature. The axial force increases at TDC and BDC were observed as lubricant viscosity was decreased and larger amounts of mixed and boundary lubrication began to occur. For each test the axial friction force data was used to calculate total cycle friction work. The thrust and off-axis (wrist pin direction) forces are discussed under the same circumstances.

Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 1

Piston assembly cross section (6)

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Figure 2

Ring/liner schematic (9)

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Figure 3

S&S V-twin motorcycle engine

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Figure 4

CAD model of floating liner

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Figure 5

Cylinder sleeve installation schematic

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Figure 6

Final floating liner assembly

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Figure 7

Uncorrected axial force trace

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Figure 8

Pressure corrected axial force trace

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Figure 9

Thrust force trace

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Figure 10

Lateral force trace

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Figure 11

Cycle friction work versus engine speed

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Figure 12

Friction work versus oil formulation

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Figure 13

Friction work versus temperature

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Figure 14

Axial force traces for SAE 30, 40, and 50 at 30°C

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Figure 15

Axial force traces for SAE 30, 40, and 50 at 90°C

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Figure 16

Axial force at dead centers versus oil grade and temperature at 600 rpm

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Figure 17

Comparison of lateral force trends at 30 and 90°C



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