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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

FT8-3 Advanced Low Emissions Combustor Design

[+] Author and Article Information
Urmila C. Reddy

 Pratt and Whitney, 400 Main Street, East Hartford, CT 06108urmila.reddy@pw.utc.com

Christine E. Blanchard

 Pratt and Whitney, 400 Main Street, East Hartford, CT 06108christine.blanchard@pw.utc.com

Barry C. Schlein

 Belcan, 400 Main Street, East Hartford, CT 06108; Pratt and Whitney Operations, 400 Main Street, East Hartford, CT 06108barry.schlein@pw.utc.com

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 133(11), 111501 (May 17, 2011) (5 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4003049 History: Received July 01, 2010; Revised November 11, 2010; Published May 17, 2011; Online May 17, 2011

Pratt and Whitney developed a novel water-injected industrial gas turbine combustor liner design that has demonstrated significant reduction in CO emissions when compared with typical film-cooled combustor designs. The CO reduction demonstrated in a prototype test shows that the CO quenching due to cooler film temperatures near the liner wall is a significant source of CO emissions in a conventional water-injected combustor operating on natural gas fuel. This finding paved the way for a combustor design that reduces CO emissions while still maintaining low levels of NOx emissions. This design also has potential for lower NOx since the low CO emissions characteristic enables increased water injection. This paper presents the emissions characteristic measured on prototype hardware and the design of the engine hardware for future validation. Significant reduction in gaseous emissions was demonstrated with the testing of a prototype at the United Technologies Research Center in East Hartford, CT. This reduction in emissions compared with the baseline film-cooled design for a given operating condition has many benefits to the customer, including the reduced need for exhaust catalyst cleanup and extended operating times while still meeting site permits specified in CO tons per year. Other benefits may include the ability to guarantee lower NOx emissions through increased water injection for the current CO emissions output.

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Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

FT8-3 water-injected and FT8-2 dry low NOx combustors

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Figure 2

Effect of water injection on NOx and CO

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Figure 3

(a) Baseline and (b) low emissions combustor

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Figure 4

Cross section of (a) baseline combustor compared with (b) low emissions combustor

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Figure 5

FT8 sector rig at UTRC

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Figure 6

Rig instrumentation (metal thermocouple locations not shown)

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Figure 7

NOx emissions at 50% and 90% loads

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Figure 8

CO emissions at 50% and 90% loads

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Figure 9

Shifted NOx–CO characteristic with low emissions combustor

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Figure 10

Thermal paint results on prototype hardware

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Figure 11

Low emission engine combustor

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Figure 12

Cross section of convective cooling passage in engine design

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