Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Emissions From a Gas Turbine Sector Rig Operated With Synthetic Aviation and Biodiesel Fuel

[+] Author and Article Information
Greg Pucher, William Allan, Marc LaViolette

 Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON, K7K 7B4, Canada

Pierre Poitras

 Quality Engineering Test Establishment, Gatineau, PQ, J8L 1A1, Canada

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 133(11), 111502 (May 19, 2011) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4002844 History: Received June 04, 2010; Revised July 23, 2010; Published May 19, 2011; Online May 19, 2011

Differences in exhaust emissions, smoke production, exhaust pattern factor, deposit buildup, and fuel nozzle spray characteristics for various blends of conventional commercial jet fuel (Jet A-1) with synthetic and biodiesel formulations were investigated. Three synthetic fuel formulations and four fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were evaluated as such. The synthetic fuels were tested in both neat (100%) and 50% by volume blends with Jet A-1, while the FAME fuels were blended in 2% and 20% proportions. The combustion chamber sector rig, which houses a Rolls Royce T-56-A-15 combustion section, was utilized for emissions, deposits, and exhaust pattern factor evaluation. A combustion chamber exhaust plane traversing thermocouple rake was employed to generate two-dimensional temperature maps during operation. Following combustion testing, several combustion system components, including the combustion chamber, fuel nozzle, and igniter plug, were analyzed for relative levels of deposit buildup. A phase Doppler anemometry system was employed to determine differences in droplet size distributions, while an optical spray pattern analyzer was used to compare the spray pattern for the various fuel blends as they emerged from the T-56 nozzle.

Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 1

Cleaned surfaces of the (a) combustion liner, (b) igniter, (c) crossover plug, and (d) nozzle shroud

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Figure 2

(a) Optical spray pattern analyzer and (b) phase Doppler anemometer

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Figure 3

Composite FSN values

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Figure 4

Hydrocarbon emissions

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Figure 5

Combustion chamber deposits following testing for (a) Jet A-1, (b) 2% fish oil, (c) 20% canola, and (d) 100% synthetic fuel

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Figure 6

Igniter deposits following testing for (a) Jet A-1, (b) 2% fish oil, (c) 20% canola, and (d) 100% synthetic fuel

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Figure 7

Composite deposit mass for the fuel blends tested

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Figure 8

Spray pattern images for (a) Jet A-1, (b) 2% fish oil, (c) 20% canola, (d) 100% canola, (e) 50% GTL synthetic, and (f) 100% GTL synthetic

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Figure 9

SMD values for the fuel blends at the (a) spray center, (b) 19.05 mm (3/4 in.), and 25.4 mm (1.0 in.); measured at 25.4 mm (1 in.) from nozzle face

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Figure 10

Exhaust temperature thermal maps for (a) Jet A-1, (b) 20% canola FAME, and (c) 100% GTL synthetic fuels (temperatures in kelvin)

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Figure 11

Pattern factor for the fuels tested

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Figure 12

Pattern factor versus HC emissions




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