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Technical Briefs

Development of a Spark Discharge PM Sensor for Measurement of Engine-Out Soot Emissions

[+] Author and Article Information
David P. Gardiner, Greg R. Pucher, William D. Allan, Marc LaViolette

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON, K7K 7B4, Canada

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 133(11), 114502 (May 18, 2011) (4 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4003711 History: Received September 27, 2010; Revised February 20, 2011; Published May 18, 2011; Online May 18, 2011

There is interest in measuring the engine-out particulate emissions from diesel engines in real time in order to optimize the engine control strategies such as exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and monitor the loading of the particulate filter. This paper presents experimental results obtained using a measurement technique that produced a signal proportional to the peak voltage of a spark discharge that was exposed to the exhaust gas. The sensor was tested on a turbocharged diesel engine with exhaust soot levels from <0.1FSN to >3.5FSN, and compared with reference measurements of filter smoke number (FSN) from an AVL 415S smokemeter. The sensor signal showed a high correlation with the reference FSN measurements. Conversion of the FSN values to mass concentration values (using published techniques for the reference instrument) indicated that the output of the spark discharge soot sensor was nearly linear with mass concentration over a substantial portion of the measuring range. The sensor showed a response time of less than 2 s to step changes in FSN levels.

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Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Heated chamber and sampling apparatus

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Figure 2

Comparison of raw sensor signal and AVL 415S FSN value (1000 rpm, variable load)

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Figure 3

Comparison of raw sensor signal and AVL 415S soot concentration value (1000 rpm, variable load)

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Figure 4

Transient response of the PM sensor to step increases in smoke levels

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