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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

FLOX® Combustion at High Power Density and High Flame Temperatures

[+] Author and Article Information
Oliver Lammel1

German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Combustion Technology, Pfaffenwaldring 38-40, 70569 Stuttgart, Germanyoliver.lammel@dlr.de

Harald Schütz, Guido Schmitz, Rainer Lückerath, Michael Stöhr, Berthold Noll, Manfred Aigner

German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Combustion Technology, Pfaffenwaldring 38-40, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany

Matthias Hase, Werner Krebs

Fossil Power Generation Division, Energy Sector, Siemens AG, 45473 Mülheim an der Ruhr, Germany

1

Corresponding author.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 132(12), 121503 (Aug 25, 2010) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4001825 History: Received April 08, 2010; Revised April 13, 2010; Published August 25, 2010; Online August 25, 2010

In this contribution, an overview of the progress in the design of an enhanced FLOX® burner is given. A fuel flexible burner concept was developed to fulfill the requirements of modern gas turbines: high specific power density, high turbine inlet temperature, and low NOx emissions. The basis for the research work is numerical simulation. With the focus on pollutant emissions, a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism is used in the calculations. A novel mixing control concept, called HiPerMix® , and its application in the FLOX® burner are presented. In view of the desired operational conditions in a gas turbine combustor, this enhanced FLOX® burner was manufactured and experimentally investigated at the DLR test facility. In the present work, experimental and computational results are presented for natural gas and natural gas+hydrogen combustion at gas turbine relevant conditions and high adiabatic flame temperatures (up to Tad=2000K). The respective power densities are PA=13.3MW/m2bar (natural gas (NG)) and PA=14.8MW/m2bar(NG+H2), satisfying the demands of a gas turbine combustor. It is demonstrated that the combustion is complete and stable and that the pollutant emissions are very low.

Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Enhanced FLOX® burner with high power density operated with natural gas at 7 bars with a high adiabatic flame temperature of 1996 K. Results from numerical simulation. Flow field indicated with streamlines. Molar fraction distribution of CO at the top and of NO at the bottom.

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Figure 2

Schematic of the HiPerMix® burner: (a) perspective view, (b) cross sectional slice, and (c) longitudinal slice

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Figure 3

Computational result of flow and fuel concentration distribution (fuel concentration (%)) in the HiPerMix® burner. (a) Quadratic inlet channel, (b) rectangular inlet channel (aspect ratio height to width=1/2), and (c) perspective streamline representation.

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Figure 4

Dome of a can combustor with 12 HiPerMix® burner nozzles equidistantly mounted on a concentric circle around the combustor axis

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Figure 5

Combustor for high pressure test rig HBK-S. Enhanced FLOX® burner, version 2A, and hexagonal combustion chamber with quartz glass walls for optical access.

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Figure 6

Schematic of setup for PIV measurements

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Figure 7

Arrangement of burner and measurement plane for configurations of 0 deg and 15 deg

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Figure 8

Cross sectional view of the combustion chamber with the enhanced FLOX® burner. The two exciting CARS laser beams (pump laser; ring on the left side; Stokes laser: spot on the left side) were focused with a lens to the probe volume. The generated CARS signal (narrow outer ring on the right side) is collected with a second lens.

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Figure 9

Flame position and size for different fuels and air equivalence ratios for enhanced FLOX® burner, version 2A. (a) Configuration of the combustor: 15 deg, indication of the size and the position of the chemiluminescence image plane; (b) front view of the burner, projection of the positions of the nozzles. Measurements for (c) natural gas and (d) natural gas+50 vol % hydrogen.

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Figure 10

Pressure dynamics for different nozzle exit velocities for enhanced FLOX® burner, version 2A, operated with natural gas

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Figure 11

Flow field measurements with PIV for enhanced FLOX® burner, version 2A. (a) Configuration of the combustor: 15 deg, indication of the size and the position of the PIV laser sheet and image plane; (b) instantaneous flow fields (streamline plots).

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Figure 12

Average flow field (streamline plot) for enhanced FLOX® burner, version 2A. Comparison between (a) PIV experimental data and (b) result from numerical simulation.

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Figure 13

Results from numerical simulation: temperature and flow fields for enhanced FLOX® burner, version 2A, operated (a) with natural gas and (b) with natural gas+50 vol % hydrogen, respectively

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Figure 14

Temperature measurements with CARS and comparison with computational values. Temperature profile on the combustor axis. Small inlaid frames: statistical temperature information for selected measurement positions (histograms with number of events versus temperatures, all inlaid frames scaled equally).

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Figure 15

Exhaust gas analysis data for enhanced FLOX® burner, version 2A: (a) natural gas and (b) natural gas+50 vol % hydrogen. Computational results indicated by big symbols, squared for CO, and circular for NO/NOx, respectively.

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Figure 16

Measured NOx values for enhanced FLOX® burner, version 2D, for different fuel mixtures (natural gas, natural gas+propane, natural gas+hydrogen)

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