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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

# FLOX® Combustion at High Power Density and High Flame Temperatures

[+] Author and Article Information
Oliver Lammel1

German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Combustion Technology, Pfaffenwaldring 38-40, 70569 Stuttgart, Germanyoliver.lammel@dlr.de

Harald Schütz, Guido Schmitz, Rainer Lückerath, Michael Stöhr, Berthold Noll, Manfred Aigner

German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Combustion Technology, Pfaffenwaldring 38-40, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany

Matthias Hase, Werner Krebs

Fossil Power Generation Division, Energy Sector, Siemens AG, 45473 Mülheim an der Ruhr, Germany

1

Corresponding author.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 132(12), 121503 (Aug 25, 2010) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4001825 History: Received April 08, 2010; Revised April 13, 2010; Published August 25, 2010; Online August 25, 2010

## Abstract

In this contribution, an overview of the progress in the design of an enhanced FLOX® burner is given. A fuel flexible burner concept was developed to fulfill the requirements of modern gas turbines: high specific power density, high turbine inlet temperature, and low $NOx$ emissions. The basis for the research work is numerical simulation. With the focus on pollutant emissions, a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism is used in the calculations. A novel mixing control concept, called HiPerMix® , and its application in the FLOX® burner are presented. In view of the desired operational conditions in a gas turbine combustor, this enhanced FLOX® burner was manufactured and experimentally investigated at the DLR test facility. In the present work, experimental and computational results are presented for natural gas and natural $gas+hydrogen$ combustion at gas turbine relevant conditions and high adiabatic flame temperatures (up to $Tad=2000 K$). The respective power densities are $PA=13.3 MW/m2 bar$ (natural gas (NG)) and $PA=14.8 MW/m2 bar$$(NG+H2)$, satisfying the demands of a gas turbine combustor. It is demonstrated that the combustion is complete and stable and that the pollutant emissions are very low.

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## Figures

Figure 1

Enhanced FLOX® burner with high power density operated with natural gas at 7 bars with a high adiabatic flame temperature of 1996 K. Results from numerical simulation. Flow field indicated with streamlines. Molar fraction distribution of CO at the top and of NO at the bottom.

Figure 2

Schematic of the HiPerMix® burner: (a) perspective view, (b) cross sectional slice, and (c) longitudinal slice

Figure 3

Computational result of flow and fuel concentration distribution (fuel concentration (%)) in the HiPerMix® burner. (a) Quadratic inlet channel, (b) rectangular inlet channel (aspect ratio height to width=1/2), and (c) perspective streamline representation.

Figure 4

Dome of a can combustor with 12 HiPerMix® burner nozzles equidistantly mounted on a concentric circle around the combustor axis

Figure 5

Combustor for high pressure test rig HBK-S. Enhanced FLOX® burner, version 2A, and hexagonal combustion chamber with quartz glass walls for optical access.

Figure 6

Schematic of setup for PIV measurements

Figure 7

Arrangement of burner and measurement plane for configurations of 0 deg and 15 deg

Figure 8

Cross sectional view of the combustion chamber with the enhanced FLOX® burner. The two exciting CARS laser beams (pump laser; ring on the left side; Stokes laser: spot on the left side) were focused with a lens to the probe volume. The generated CARS signal (narrow outer ring on the right side) is collected with a second lens.

Figure 9

Flame position and size for different fuels and air equivalence ratios for enhanced FLOX® burner, version 2A. (a) Configuration of the combustor: 15 deg, indication of the size and the position of the chemiluminescence image plane; (b) front view of the burner, projection of the positions of the nozzles. Measurements for (c) natural gas and (d) natural gas+50 vol % hydrogen.

Figure 10

Pressure dynamics for different nozzle exit velocities for enhanced FLOX® burner, version 2A, operated with natural gas

Figure 11

Flow field measurements with PIV for enhanced FLOX® burner, version 2A. (a) Configuration of the combustor: 15 deg, indication of the size and the position of the PIV laser sheet and image plane; (b) instantaneous flow fields (streamline plots).

Figure 12

Average flow field (streamline plot) for enhanced FLOX® burner, version 2A. Comparison between (a) PIV experimental data and (b) result from numerical simulation.

Figure 13

Results from numerical simulation: temperature and flow fields for enhanced FLOX® burner, version 2A, operated (a) with natural gas and (b) with natural gas+50 vol % hydrogen, respectively

Figure 14

Temperature measurements with CARS and comparison with computational values. Temperature profile on the combustor axis. Small inlaid frames: statistical temperature information for selected measurement positions (histograms with number of events versus temperatures, all inlaid frames scaled equally).

Figure 15

Exhaust gas analysis data for enhanced FLOX® burner, version 2A: (a) natural gas and (b) natural gas+50 vol % hydrogen. Computational results indicated by big symbols, squared for CO, and circular for NO/NOx, respectively.

Figure 16

Measured NOx values for enhanced FLOX® burner, version 2D, for different fuel mixtures (natural gas, natural gas+propane, natural gas+hydrogen)

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