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Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

Precombustion Chamber Design for Emissions Reduction From Large Bore NG Engines

[+] Author and Article Information
Dean J. Simpson, Daniel B. Olsen

Engines and Energy Conversion Laboratory, Colorado State University, 430 N. College Avenue, Fort Collins, CO 80523

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 132(12), 122802 (Aug 30, 2010) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4001293 History: Received December 04, 2008; Revised February 02, 2010; Published August 30, 2010; Online August 30, 2010

Precombustion chambers (PCCs) are an ignition technology for large bore, natural gas engines, which can extend the lean operating limit through improved combustion stability. Previous research indicates that the PCC is responsible for a significant portion of engine-out emissions, especially near the lean limit of engine operation. In this work, six concept PCC designs are developed with the objective of reducing engine-out emissions, focusing on oxides of nitrogen (NOx). The design variables include chamber geometry, chamber volume, fuel delivery, nozzle geometry, and material thermal conductivity. The concepts are tested on a single cylinder of a large bore, two-stroke cycle, lean burn, natural gas compressor engine, and the results are compared with stock PCC performance. The pollutants of interest include NOx, carbon monoxide, total hydrocarbons, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The results indicate that PCC volume has the largest effect on the overall NOxCO tradeoff. Multiple nozzles and electronic PCC fuel control were found to enhance main chamber combustion stability, particularly at partial load conditions. The PCC influence on VOCs was insignificant; rather, VOCs were found to be heavily dependent on fuel composition.

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Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Stock PCC (baseline)

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Figure 3

Multiple nozzle PCC

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Figure 6

ePCC solid model and test setup

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Figure 7

Left: adiabatic PCC nozzle failure; right: molten material covering sparkplug

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Figure 8

NOx versus CO emissions at 15% O2

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Figure 9

NOx versus CO emissions at 15% O2 excluding NF MPCC HPFI

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Figure 10

Average (a) NOX, (b) CO, (c) THC, and (d) VOC emissions from lean limit testing

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Figure 11

Average VOCs versus percent C2+ fuel composition

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