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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Cycle Innovations

An Axial Flow Compressor for Operation With Humid Air and Water Injection

[+] Author and Article Information
Jesuino Takachi Tomita

Division of Mechanical-Aeronautical Engineering, Center for Reference on Gas Turbine and Energy, Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica (ITA), 12228-900 São José dos Campos, Sao Paulo, Braziljtakachi@ita.br

Luciano Porto Bontempo

Division of Mechanical-Aeronautical Engineering, Center for Reference on Gas Turbine and Energy, Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica (ITA), 12228-900 São José dos Campos, Sao Paulo, Brazilbontempo@ita.br

João Roberto Barbosa

Division of Mechanical-Aeronautical Engineering, Center for Reference on Gas Turbine and Energy, Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica (ITA), 12228-900 São José dos Campos, Sao Paulo, Brazilbarbosa@ita.br

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 133(7), 071703 (Mar 17, 2011) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4002672 History: Received April 25, 2010; Revised May 13, 2010; Published March 17, 2011; Online March 17, 2011

The first steps of the turbomachinery design usually rely on numerical tools based on inviscid formulation with corrections using loss models to account for viscous effects, secondary flows, tip clearances, and shock waves. The viscous effects are accounted for using semi-empirical correlations especially assembled for the chosen airfoils and range of operating conditions. Fast convergence and good accuracy are required from such design procedures. There are successful models that produce very accurate performance prediction. Among the methodologies commonly used, the streamline curvature (SLC) is used since those characteristics and the most important properties can be calculated reasonably well at any radial positions, assisting other more complex analysis programs. The SLC technique is, therefore, well suited for the design of axial flow compressors for reasons such as quick access to vital flow properties at the blade edges from which actions may be taken to improve its performance at the design stage. This work reports the association of a SLC computer program and commercial software for comparison purposes, as well as for grid generation required by a full 3D, turbulent Navier–Stokes computer program used for flow calculation in the blade passages. Application to a high performance three-stage axial flow compressor with inlet guide vane demonstrates the methodology adopted. The SLC program is also capable of calculating the compressor performance with humid air and water injection at any axial position along the compressor. The influence of water injection at different axial positions, water particle diameter, and temperature of water particles were studied for different humid air conditions. The positions of the evaporating water particles were calculated using their thermophysical and dynamic properties along the compressor.

Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Rotors pressure ratio distributions

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Figure 2

Mach numbers at rotor inlet and outlet

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Figure 3

DF distribution at rotor rows

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Figure 4

Total and static outlet pressures

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Total and static outlet temperatures

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Outlet Mach number at last stator

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Figure 7

Mach number distribution at the first rotor inlet

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Mach number distribution at the second rotor inlet

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Figure 9

Mach number distribution at the third rotor inlet

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Figure 10

Static pressure distribution at the first rotor inlet

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Static pressure distribution at the second rotor inlet

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Figure 12

Static pressure distribution at the third rotor inlet

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Figure 13

Droplets cloud in the streamtube

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Figure 14

Compression process: P−v diagram

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T−s diagram with water injection and dry compression for a given pressure ratio

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Static temperature distribution: humid air

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Figure 17

Temperature variation with humidity

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Figure 18

Specific heat: humid air

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Isentropic coefficient distribution: humid air

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Stagnation pressure distribution: humid air

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Specific weight distribution: humid air

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Figure 22

Compressor efficiency variation: humid air

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Figure 23

Pressure ratio variation: humid air

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Figure 24

Droplet pathlines

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Figure 25

Stagnation pressure distribution: water injection

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Stagnation temperature distribution: water injection

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Figure 27

Temperature distribution: water injection

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Figure 28

Compressor efficiency with water injection percentage of 0.5–1.5%

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