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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Cycle Innovations

A SOFC-Based Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell Cycle With $CO2$ Capture

[+] Author and Article Information
Vincenzo Spallina

Department of Energy, Politecnico di Milano, Via Lambruschini 4, 20156 Milano, Italyvincenzo.spallina@mail.polimi.it

Matteo C. Romano

Department of Energy, Politecnico di Milano, Via Lambruschini 4, 20156 Milano, Italymatteo.romano@polimi.it

Stefano Campanari

Department of Energy, Politecnico di Milano, Via Lambruschini 4, 20156 Milano, Italystefano.campanari@polimi.it

Giovanni Lozza

Department of Energy, Politecnico di Milano, Via Lambruschini 4, 20156 Milano, Italygiovanni.lozza@polimi.it

Metal dusting is a serious corrosion phenomenon, which leads to the disintegration of metals and alloys when exposed to gaseous atmospheres with carbon activity higher than 1 (i.e., when carbon formation would occur at chemical equilibrium), at temperatures of $400–800°C$(18). Metal dusting can be prevented by adding sulfur to the gas or by using metal dusting resistant materials or coatings. However, ultimate materials and protection methods have not been developed yet and metal dusting remains today a challenge in process and equipment design (19).

Direct oxidation of CO also occurs in the SOFC but with a much slower kinetic, so that it can be neglected with respect to CO shift and subsequent hydrogen consumption.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 133(7), 071706 (Mar 24, 2011) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4002176 History: Received May 13, 2010; Revised May 25, 2010; Published March 24, 2011; Online March 24, 2011

Abstract

The application of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) in gasification-based power plants would represent a turning point in the power generation sector, allowing to considerably increase the electric efficiency of coal-fired power stations. Pollutant emissions would also be significantly reduced in integrated gasification fuel cell cycles (IGFC) considering the much lower emissions of conventional pollutants ($NOx$, CO, $SOx$, and particulate matter) typical of fuel cell-based systems. In addition, SOFC-based IGFCs appear particularly suited to applications in power plants with $CO2$ capture. This is evident by considering that SOFCs operate as air separators and partly oxidized fuel exiting the fuel cell does not contain nitrogen from air, such as in conventional oxyfuel processes. The aim of this paper is the thermodynamic analysis of a SOFC-based IGFC with $CO2$ capture. In the assessed plant, syngas produced in a high efficiency Shell gasifier is used in SOFC modules after heat recovery and cleaning. Anode exhausts, still containing combustible species, are burned with oxygen produced in the air separation unit, also used to generate the oxygen needed in the gasifier; the product gas is cooled down in a heat recovery steam generator before water condensation and $CO2$ compression. The plant layout is carefully designed to best exploit the heat generated in all the processes and, apart from the fuel cell exotic components, far from industrial state-of-the-art, are not included. Detailed energy and mass balances are presented for a better comprehension of the obtained results.

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Figures

Figure 1

Schematic of the IGFC plant without CO2 capture

Figure 2

Schematic of the IGFC plant with CO2 capture and steam cycle based bottoming cycle

Figure 3

Schematic of the power island of the IGFC plant with CO2 capture and semiclosed CO2 combined cycle

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