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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Microturbines and Small Turbomachinery

# Design and Testing of a Micromix Combustor With Recuperative Wall Cooling for a Hydrogen Fueled $μ$-Scale Gas Turbine

[+] Author and Article Information
A. E. Robinson

Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd. & Co. KG, Hohemarkstrasse 60–70, 61440 Oberursel, Germanyrobinson@fh-aachen.de

H. H.-W. Funke

Department for Gas Turbines and Aircraft Engines, Aachen University of Applied Sciences (ACUAS), Hohenstaufenallee 6, 52064 Aachen, Germanyfunke@fh-aachen.de

P. Hendrick

Faculté des Sciences Appliquées, Service Aéro-Thermo-Mécanique, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Avenue F. D. Roosevelt 50, 1050 Brussels, Belgiumpatrick.hendrick@ulb.ac.be

R. Wagemakers

Department of MECA, Fluid Mechanics, Royal Military Academy (RMA), Avenue de la Renaissance 30, 1000 Brussels, Belgiumrolf.wagemakers@rma.ac.be

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 133(8), 082301 (Apr 11, 2011) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4002847 History: Received July 07, 2010; Revised July 24, 2010; Published April 11, 2011; Online April 11, 2011

## Abstract

For more than 1 decade up to now, there is an ongoing interest in small gas turbines downsized to microscale. With their high energy density, they offer a great potential as a substitute for today’s unwieldy accumulators found in a variety of applications such as laptops, small tools, etc. But microscale gas turbines could not only be used for generating electricity, they could also produce thrust for powering small unmanned aerial vehicles or similar devices. Beneath all the great design challenges with the rotating parts of the turbomachinery at this small scale, another crucial item is in fact the combustion chamber needed for a safe and reliable operation. With the so-called regular micromix burning principle for hydrogen successfully downscaled in an initial combustion chamber prototype of 10 kW energy output, this paper describes a new design attempt aimed at the integration possibilities in a $μ$-scale gas turbine. For manufacturing the combustion chamber completely out of stainless steel components, a recuperative wall cooling was introduced to keep the temperatures in an acceptable range. Also a new way of an integrated ignition was developed. The detailed description of the prototype’s design is followed by an in depth report about the test results. The experimental investigations comprise a set of mass flow variations, coupled with a variation of the equivalence ratio for each mass flow at different inlet temperatures and pressures. With the data obtained by an exhaust gas analysis, a full characterization concerning combustion efficiency and stability of the prototype chamber is possible. Furthermore, the data show full compliance with the expected operating requirements of the designated $μ$-scale gas turbine.

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## Figures

Figure 3

Inner chamber wall with air inlet slots and guiding panel beneath a standard 1 Euro coin

Figure 4

Optimized geometry for minimal pressure loss

Figure 5

3D cutaway of complete test rig installation

Figure 6

Side view of combustion chamber without outer casing

Figure 7

Burning efficiency against λ-variation at ambient, non-preheated conditions at different air mass flow rates

Figure 9

Burning efficiency against λ-variation at 100% air mass flow rate for ambient pressure, 2 bar, and 3 bar

Figure 10

Burning efficiency against λ-variation at 66% air mass flow rate for ambient pressure, 3 bar, and 5 bar

Figure 11

Applied energy QH2 against ER for different air mass flow rates at ambient and pressurized conditions

Figure 12

Applied energy QH2 against ER for different air mass flow rates at ambient, preheated conditions for the previous combustion chamber prototype (22)

Figure 13

Applied energy QH2 against ER for different air mass flow rates at ambient and pressurized conditions

Figure 8

Burning efficiency against λ-variation at ambient, preheated (690 K) conditions at different air mass flow rates

Figure 1

Detail of the realized regular micromix burning principle with crossflow injection of hydrogen

Figure 2

Cross-sectional view of recuperative cooled wall chamber layout with main parts and basic air flow chart

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