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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Aircraft Engine

Supersonic Jet Noise Reduction Technologies for Gas Turbine Engines

[+] Author and Article Information
David Munday

 University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221david.munday@uc.edu

Nick Heeb

 University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221heebns@mail.uc.edu

Ephraim Gutmark

 University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221ephraim.gutmark@uc.edu

Junhui Liu

 Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375jhliu@lcp.nrl.navy.mil

K. Kailasanath

 Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375kailas@lcp.nrl.navy.mil

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 133(10), 101201 (May 03, 2011) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4002914 History: Received May 12, 2010; Revised October 06, 2010; Published May 03, 2011; Online May 03, 2011

This paper presents observations and simulations of the impact of several technologies on modifying the flow-field and acoustic emissions from supersonic jets from nozzles typical of those used on military aircraft. The flow-field is measured experimentally by shadowgraph and particle image velocimetry. The acoustics are characterized by near- and far-field microphone measurements. The flow- and near-field pressures are simulated by a monotonically integrated large eddy simulation. Use of unstructured grids allows accurate modeling of the nozzle geometry. The emphasis of the work is on “off-design” or nonideally expanded flow conditions. The technologies applied to these nozzles include chevrons, fluidic injection, and fluidically enhanced chevrons. The fluidic injection geometry and the fluidic enhancement geometry follow the approach found successful for subsonic jets by employing jets pitched 60 deg into the flow, impinging on the shear layer just past the tips of the chevrons or in the same axial position when injection is without chevrons.

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Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Nozzle geometry for the baseline nozzle, with Md=1.50

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Figure 2

Geometry of the chevron cap, which fits over the nozzle

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Figure 3

Fluidic injection geometry (cross section view), 0.125 in. (3.18 mm) i.d. tubes

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Figure 4

Computational domain and boundary conditions

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Figure 5

Mach number contours of baseline nozzle, Mj=1.56

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Figure 6

PIV of velocity modification due to chevrons: Mj=1.46, z/D=2. The black circle has a diameter equal to the nozzle exit. The missing data regions are due to hardware reflections contaminating the PIV images of the seeded flow.

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Figure 7

Shadowgraph images with and without chevrons

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Figure 8

Density cross-cuts from LES: The upper image compares the nozzle without chevrons (top) with a plane through the valley between chevrons (bottom). The lower image compares the nozzle without chevrons (top) with a plane through the chevron tips. Mj=1.56 for both images.

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Figure 9

LES of chevrons and fluidic injection: Mj=1.56, x/D=1.0. Injection tube pressure ratio was 4. Velocities are normalized by Uj. The top half is fluidic injection; the bottom half is chevrons.

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Figure 10

(a) Far-field spectra of baseline and chevron configurations for an observer at ψ=35 deg in the upstream quadrant. (b) Far-field spectra of baseline and chevron configurations for an observer at ψ=150 deg in the downstream quadrant.

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Figure 11

(a) Far-field spectra of baseline and fluidic injection configurations for an observer at ψ=35 deg in the upstream quadrant. (b) Far-field spectra of baseline and fluidic injection configurations for an observer at ψ=150 deg in the downstream quadrant.

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Figure 12

(a) Far-field spectra of chevron and fluidically enhanced chevron configurations for an observer at ψ=35 deg in the upstream quadrant. (b) Far-field spectra of chevron and fluidically enhanced chevron configurations for an observer at ψ=150 deg in the downstream quadrant.

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Figure 13

Near-field spectra from LES for baseline, chevrons, and fluidic injection: Mj=1.56. Upper figure x/D=10.8, r/D=2.2. Lower figure x/D=2, r/D=1.

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Figure 14

Instantaneous pressure from LES for Mj=1.56. Upper figure compares chevrons to the baseline nozzle. Lower figure compares fluidic injection to baseline.

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