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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Oil and Gas Applications

Spring Stiffness Selection Criteria for Nozzle Check Valves Employed in Compressor Stations

[+] Author and Article Information
K. K. Botros

 NOVA Research & Technology Center, 2928 16 Street NE, Calgary, Alberta, Canadabotrosk@novachem.com

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 133(12), 122401 (Aug 31, 2011) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4004113 History: Received April 08, 2011; Revised April 09, 2011; Published August 31, 2011; Online August 31, 2011

Nozzle type check valves are often employed in compressor stations in three locations: compressor outlet, station discharge, and station bypass. The fundamental design concept of these valves is based on creating a converging diverging flow through the valve internal geometry such that a minimum area is achieved at a location corresponding to the back of the check valve disk at the fully open position. This will ensure maximum hydrodynamic force coefficient which allows the valve to be fully open with minimum flow. Spring forces and stiffness determine the performance of this type of check valves and impact the overall operation and integrity of the compressor station. This paper examines the effects of various spring characteristics and stiffness in relation to the compressor and station flow characteristics. The results show that when the spring forces are higher than the maximum hydrodynamic force at minimum flow, the disk will not be at the fully open position, which will give rise to disk fluttering and potential for cyclic high velocity impact between components of the internal valve assembly. This could lead to self destruction of the check valve and subsequent risk of damage to the compressor unit itself. The paper also points to the fact that the spring selection criteria for a unit check valve are different than that for station and bypass check valves. An example of a case study with actual field data from a high pressure ratio compressor station employing this type of check valves is presented to illustrate the associated dynamic phenomena and fluid-structure interaction within the internal assembly of the check valve.

Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

A schematic of a compressor station layout

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Figure 2

A schematic of a nozzle type check valves (top: full round disk [3], bottom: ring disk [4])

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Figure 3

Balance of forces on a nozzle type check valve

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Figure 4

Near wall nondimensional distance y+ along different solid boundaries (x direction) of the valve internals

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Figure 5

Velocity flow field in a nozzle check valve (ring disk), approach water velocity = 3.16 m/s (internal geometry was taken from Ref. [4])

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Figure 6

Pressure field in a nozzle check valve (ring disk), approach water velocity = 3.16 m/s (internal geometry was taken from Ref. [4])

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Figure 7

Normalized pressure distribution on the disk surface of the nozzle check valve from Fig. 6 (R is the outer radius of the disk)

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Figure 8

Published pressure isobars of flow field of a ring disk type valve in a fully open position (isolines range from −5ρV2 to + 2ρV2, step of [1/2]ρV2) (Ref. [4])

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Figure 9

Velocity and pressure flow field in a nozzle check valve (full disk) (Ref. [19])

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Figure 10

Normalized pressure distribution on the disk surface of the nozzle check valve of Fig. 9

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Figure 11

Example of the ring disk check valve full open characteristics on compressor performance characteristics

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Figure 12

Actual operating data of a compressor station on compressor performance map

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Figure 13

Schematic of a ring disk nozzle type check valve showing the radial guides and guide arms and springs (Ref. [20])

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Figure 14

Schematic of two-degree of freedom vibration model of the ring disk type check valve internal assembly

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Figure 15

Measured flow oscillation at compressor suction and corresponding amplitude spectra

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Figure 16

Disk fluttering due to flow oscillations at 1 Hz

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Figure 17

Effects of spring stiffness on check valve flow characteristics with respect to compressor performance map

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Figure 18

Ratio of pressure and flow velocity amplitudes of station to unit check valves

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Figure 19

Measured flow characteristics during compressor ESD

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Figure 20

Response of the unit check valve to compressor ESD of Fig. 1

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Figure 21

Simulated flow characteristics during compressor ESD

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Figure 22

Response of the unit check valve to compressor ESD of Fig. 2

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