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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Oil and Gas Applications

Particle Transport Analysis of Sand Ingestion in Gas Turbine Engines

[+] Author and Article Information
Klaus Brun

 Southwest Research Institute® , Mechanical Engineering Division, 6220 Culebra Road, San Antonio, TX 78238kbrun@swri.org

Marybeth Nored

 Southwest Research Institute® , Mechanical Engineering Division, 6220 Culebra Road, San Antonio, TX 78238marybeth.nored@swri.org

Rainer Kurz

 Solar Turbines, Inc., 9330 Sky Park Court, San Diego, CA 92123kurz_rainer_x@solarturbines.com

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 134(1), 012402 (Oct 28, 2011) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4004187 History: Received April 27, 2011; Revised April 29, 2011; Published October 28, 2011; Online October 28, 2011

Significant interest exists in the military and commercial aerospace industry to better predict and improve the durability of gas turbine jet engines that are operating in hostile desert environments, specifically, jet engines that see significant inlet sand or ash ingestion. This paper describes the development of a mixed CFD-empirical software tool that allows a detailed analysis of the kinematic and impact behavior of sand and other particulates in the near-field of turbomachinery blades and impellers. The tool employs a commercially available CFD solver to calculate the machine’s transient flow field and then uses the output to determine a set of nondimensional coefficients in a set of empirical functions to predict the statistical probability of particles impacting on rotating or stationary surfaces. Based on this tool’s output information, improved inlet air filtering techniques, optimized engine maintenance practices, and component designs can be realized. To determine the empirical coefficient and to validate the method, PIV testing was performed on an airfoil in a wind tunnel; then particle injection into a simple rotating impeller was tested on SwRI’s high-speed compressor test rig. Results from these tests allowed optimizing of the model to reflect rotating machinery particle impact behavior more accurately.

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Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Blade surface temperature as a function of cooling hole through-flow

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Figure 2

VVI total sum indicating probability of particle impacts on leading edge of airfoil

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Figure 3

Particle image velocimetry on a NACA 009 airfoil

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Figure 4

Simple 2-D CFD model of flow around airfoil

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Figure 5

Single-stage impeller CFD model

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Figure 6

CFD results — velocity magnitude plot and vector plot near leading edge

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Figure 7

Coriolis VVI terms as function of radial distance from leading edge

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Figure 8

Impeller blade leading edge after sand ingestion experiment

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Figure 9

Sand abrasion in centrifugal impeller with local VVI coefficients

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