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Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

Effect of Biodiesel, Jet Propellant (JP-8) and Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel on Auto-Ignition, Combustion, Performance and Emissions in a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
Chandrasekharan Jayakumar, Jagdish Nargunde, Anubhav Sinha, Walter Bryzik, Naeim A. Henein

 Wayne State University, 5050 Anthony Wayne Drive, Suite 2100, Detroit, MI 48201

Eric Sattler

 US Army Tank Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center, East Eleven Mile Road, Warren, MI 48397

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 134(2), 022801 (Dec 08, 2011) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4003971 History: Received October 25, 2010; Revised November 04, 2010; Published December 08, 2011; Online December 08, 2011

Concern about the depletion of petroleum reserves, rising prices of conventional fuels, security of supply and global warming have driven research toward the development of renewable fuels for use in diesel engines. These fuels have different physical and chemical properties that affect the diesel combustion process. This paper compares between the autoignition, combustion, performance and emissions of soy-bean derived biodiesel, Jet propellant (JP-8) and ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) in a high speed single-cylinder research diesel engine equipped with a common rail injection system. Tests were conducted at steady state conditions at different injection pressures ranging from 600 bar to 1200 bar. The ‘rate of heat release’ traces are analyzed to determine the effect of fuel properties on the ignition delay, premixed combustion fraction and mixing and diffusion controlled combustion fractions. Biodiesel produced the largest diffusion controlled combustion fraction at all injection pressures compared to ULSD and JP-8. At 600 bar injection pressure, the diffusion controlled combustion fraction for biodiesel was 53% whereas both JP-8 and ULSD produced 39%. In addition, the effect of fuel properties on engine performance, fuel economy, and engine-out emissions is determined. On an average JP-8 produced 3% higher thermal efficiency than ULSD. Special attention is given to the oxides of nitrogen (NOx ) emissions and particulate matter characteristics. On an average biodiesel produced 37% less NOx emissions compared to ULSD and JP-8.

Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Injection timing versus injection pressure for various fuels

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Figure 2

Rate of heat release curve sections [14]

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Figure 3

Rate of heat release for three fuels at 1200 bar

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Figure 4

Post SOI and Evaporation for different fuels

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Figure 5

Ignition delay versus injection pressure for various fuels

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Figure 6

Ignition delay versus Cetane number

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Figure 7

Apparent rate of heat release peaks for various fuels

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Figure 8

Normalized cumulative rate of heat release at two injection pressures for different fuels

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Figure 9

Premixed burn fraction for different fuels

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Figure 10

Indicated specific fuel consumption versus injection pressure for various fuels

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Figure 11

Indicated thermal efficiency versus injection pressure for various fuels

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Figure 12

NOx emissions versus injection pressure for various fuels

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Figure 13

Pressure traces of three fuels at 1200 bar injection pressure

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Figure 14

Peak cylinder pressure versus injection pressure for various fuels

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Figure 15

Hydrocarbon emissions versus injection pressure for various fuels

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Figure 16

Exhaust temperatures versus injection pressure for various fuels

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Figure 17

CO emissions versus injection pressure for various fuels

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Figure 18

Average particle size distribution for three fuels at 1000 bar injection pressure

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Figure 19

Nano particle concentration versus injection pressure for various fuels

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Figure 20

Effect of volatility on nano-particle emissions

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