Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Spray and Flame Structure of a Generic Injector at Aeroengine Conditions

[+] Author and Article Information
Ulrich Meier, Johannes Heinze, Stefan Freitag, Christoph Hassa

 German Aerospace Center (DLR),Institute of Propulsion Technology, 51147 Köln, Germany

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 134(3), 031503 (Dec 30, 2011) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4004262 History: Received April 28, 2011; Revised April 28, 2011; Published December 30, 2011; Online December 30, 2011

In support of the development of CFD for aeroengine combustion, quantitative measurements of spray properties and temperature were made. A generic swirling air blast injector was designed and built to produce well defined inlet conditions and for ease of numerical description for the CFD development. The measurements were performed in an optically accessible single sector combustor at pressures of 4 and 10 bar and preheat temperatures of 550 and 650 K, respectively. Jet A-1 was used as fuel. The burner air to fuel ratio was 20 and the pressure loss was set to 3%. Sauter mean diameter profiles and liquid mass flux distributions were generated from the phase Doppler anemometry measurements of the evaporating spray drop sizes and velocities. With planar measurements of Mie scattering and kerosene-LIF, the distribution of kerosene (liquid and vapor phase) was imaged. Temperatures were measured with OH-LIF. The burner was designed with a straight outlet to exhibit lifted flames. Hence initial distributions of size, velocity and density of the spray were measured before it entered the flame. Almost complete prevaporization was seen at least for the four bar flame. Compared with atmospheric investigations, the smaller diameters of the droplets and the small streamline curvature of the configuration led to a more uniform behavior of the spray.

Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 1

Single Sector Combustor; left: schematic; right: 3D view

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Figure 2

Schematic of the burner; TC: Thermocouple

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Figure 3

Top view of details of the inner (left) and outer (right) swirlers

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Figure 4

Photographs of flame A (top) and B (bottom). Image of flame A shows also laser light sheet for fuel imaging by Mie scattering.

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Figure 5

Heat release (false color) and liquid kerosene distribution (contour) for flames A (top) and B (bottom). See text for explanation of false color scale. Contour lines are at 10%, 20%, and 50% of maximum intensity.

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Figure 6

Examples of instantaneous distributions of temperature and fuel. Test case B: p = 10 bar, T = 650 K, AFR 20. Contour line indicates 10% of initial fuel PLIF signal.

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Figure 7

Axial distributions of heat release along burner centerline. Green lines indicate measurement positions of radial profiles of spray distributions. Liftoff distances are marked with square symbols.

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Figure 8

Radial profiles from cuts through planar distributions of liquid fuel in a plane parallel to burner exit at three different axial positions

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Figure 9

Spatial distributions in central plane of liquid fuel (a), liquid and gaseous fuel (b), heat release (c), and temperature (d) for flames A and B. White line indicates burner exit plane.

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Figure 10

Radial velocity profiles in isothermal flow, case C

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Figure 11

Volume flux (false color) and velocities for droplets with size 16  μm+/-10%, case A

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Figure 12

Droplet velocities for particles with size 16  μm+/-10% and 2 μm+/-10% (red), case A

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Figure 13

Radial profiles of axial velocity component at different axial positions z for case A. All particle sizes are included.

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Figure 14

Case A: Profiles of axial velocities at axial position 7 mm for different size classes: 2 μm (u2), 8 μm (u8). 16 μm (u16), and 32 μm (u32); width of each size class ±10% of central size

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Figure 15

Radial profiles of SMD at different axial positions z for case A (top) and B (bottom)

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Figure 16

Radial distributions of SMD for case A (squares) and B (diamonds) at axial distance z = 15 mm



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