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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Study on the Operational Window of a Swirl Stabilized Syngas Burner Under Atmospheric and High Pressure Conditions

[+] Author and Article Information
C. Mayer1

Lehrstuhl für Thermodynamik, TU München, D-85748 Garching, Germanymayer@td.mw.tum.deAlstom (Switzerland) Ltd., Brown Boveri Strasse 7, 5401 Baden, Switzerlandmayer@td.mw.tum.de

J. Sangl, T. Sattelmayer, T. Lachaux, S. Bernero

Lehrstuhl für Thermodynamik, TU München, D-85748 Garching, GermanyAlstom (Switzerland) Ltd., Brown Boveri Strasse 7, 5401 Baden, Switzerland

1

Corresponding author.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 134(3), 031506 (Jan 03, 2012) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4004255 History: Received April 26, 2011; Revised April 28, 2011; Published January 03, 2012; Online January 03, 2012

Providing better fuel flexibility for future gas turbine generations is a challenge as the fuel range is expected to become significantly wider (natural gas, syngas, etc.). The technical problem is to reach a wide operational window, regarding both operational safety and low emissions. In a previous paper, an approach to meet these requirements has already been presented. However, in this previous study it was difficult to exactly quantify the improvement in operational safety due to the fact that the flashback phenomena observed were not fully understood. The present continuative paper is focused on a thorough investigation of operational safety also involving the influence of pressure on flashback and the emissions of the proposed burner concept. To gain better insight into the character of the propagation and to visualize the path of the flame during its upstream motion, tests were done on an atmospheric combustion test rig providing almost complete optical access to the mixing section as well as the flame tube. OH* chemiluminescence, HS-Mie scattering and ionization detectors were applied and undiluted H2 was used as fuel for the detailed analysis. To elaborate on the influence of pressure on the stability behavior, additional tests were conducted on a pressurized test rig using a downscaled burner. OH* chemiluminescence, flashback and lean blow out measurements were conducted in this campaign, using CH4 , CH4 /H2 mixtures and pure H2 . The conducted experiments delivered the assets and drawbacks of the fuel injection strategy, where high axial fuel momentum was used to tune the flow field to achieve better flashback resistance.

Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Burner geometry and injection strategy

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Figure 2

Scheme of the atmospheric combustion test rig

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Figure 3

High pressure test rig

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Figure 4

Change of stabilization pattern with diffuser

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Figure 5

Transition of flame stabilization pattern

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Figure 6

Wall boundary layer flashback with diffuser

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Figure 7

WBLF detection with ionization detectors (row 1)

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Figure 8

Initial phase of flame flashback

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Figure 9

Transitional phase of flame flashback

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Figure 10

Flashback characteristic for different ratios between axial and TE-injection using different nozzles (Nl, N2)

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Figure 11

NOx -emissions and OH* -chemiluminescence

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Figure 12

Flashback limits and Konle [8] model

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Figure 13

Critical gradient comparison

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Figure 14

Measured WBLF limits compared to applied model

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Figure 15

Comparison of flashback limits

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Figure 16

OH* -chemiluminescence, influence of pressure on flame shape, externally premixed case, φ = 0.7

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Figure 17

OH*-chemiluminescence, influence of pressure drop on flame, externally premixed case, φ = 0.7

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Figure 18

HP test rig stability map, influence of hydrogen content on flashback and LBO, externally premixed case

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Figure 19

OH* -chemiluminescence, flame shape for stoichiometic conditions or before flashback, respectively, externally premixed case, p = 5 bar

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Figure 20

HP test rig stability map, influence of axial H2 injection on flashback and LBO

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Figure 21

HP Test Rig: OH* Chemiluminescence Images, Axial H2 Injection, p = 5 bar

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Figure 22

Critical gradient comparison

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