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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Experimental and Modeling Studies of the Oxidation of Surrogate Bio-Aviation Fuels

[+] Author and Article Information
Ida Shafagh

The Energy Technology & Innovation Initiative (ETII), Faculty of Engineering,  University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UKI.Shafagh06@leeds.ac.uk

Kevin J. Hughes

The Energy Technology & Innovation Initiative (ETII), Faculty of Engineering,  University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UKK.J.Hughes@leeds.ac.uk

Elena Catalanotti

The Energy Technology & Innovation Initiative (ETII), Faculty of Engineering,  University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UKpmec@leeds.ac.uk

Zhen Liu

The Energy Technology & Innovation Initiative (ETII), Faculty of Engineering,  University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UKL.Zhen@leeds.ac.uk

Mohamed Pourkashanian

The Energy Technology & Innovation Initiative (ETII), Faculty of Engineering,  University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UKM.Pourkashanian@leeds.ac.uk

Chris W. Wilson

Department of Mechanical Engineering,  University of Sheffield, S1 3JD, UKC.W.Wilson@sheffield.ac.uk

This research was performed prior to the decision on lowering the FAME’s percentage in aviation fuels.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 134(4), 041501 (Jan 25, 2012) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4004235 History: Received April 27, 2011; Revised May 11, 2011; Published January 25, 2012; Online January 25, 2012

Jet fuels currently in use in the aviation industry are exclusively kerosene-based. However, potential problems regarding security of supply, climate change, and increasing cost are becoming more significant, exacerbated by the rapidly growing demand from the aviation sector. Biofuels are considered one of the most suitable alternatives to petrochemical-based fuels in the aviation industry in the short to medium term, since blends of biofuel and kerosene provide a good balance of properties currently required from an aviation fuel. Experimental studies at a variety of stoichiometries using a flat flame burner with kerosene and kerosene/biofuel blends have been performed with product analysis by gas sampling and laser-induced fluorescence detection of OH, CO, and CO2 . These studies have been complemented by modeling using the PREMIX module of Chemkin to provide insights into and to validate combined models describing the oxidation chemistry of surrogate fuels depicting kerosene, fatty acid methyl ester biofuels, and Fischer-Tropsch derived fuels. Sensitivity analysis has identified important reactions within these schemes, which, where appropriate, have been investigated by molecular modeling techniques available within Gaussian 03.

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Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Transesterification reaction between a lipid source and an alcohol

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Figure 2

Schematic diagram of kerosene burner

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Figure 3

Schematic diagram of laser experimental setup

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Figure 4

Methyl butanoate and methyl tridecanoate molecular structures

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Figure 5

Schematic representation of decomposition and oxidation of MTD

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Figure 6

Species profiles for the oxidation of biokerosene (80% kerosene, 20% MTD) in a jet-stirred reactor (ϕ = 0.5, P = 10 atm, τ = 0.5 s, O2  = 3.4246%). Filled squares represent the experiments, black lines are simulations performed with the initial MTD mechanism, and dashed lines represent the optimized version AFRMv2.1.

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Figure 7

Species profiles for the oxidation of biokerosene (80% kerosene, 20% MTD) in a jet-stirred reactor (ϕ = 1.0, P = 10 atm, τ = 0.5 s, O2  = 3.4246%). Filled squares represent the experiments, black lines are simulations performed with the initial MTD mechanism, and dashed lines represent the optimized version AFRMv2.1.

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Figure 8

Sensitivity analysis performed for the main species in a lean biokerosene flame (ϕ = 0.5, P = 10 atm, τ = 0.5 s, O2  = 3.4246%, T = 850 K)

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Figure 9

Sensitivity analysis performed for the main species in a lean biokerosene flame (ϕ = 0.5, P = 10 atm, τ = 0.5 s, O2  = 3.4246%, T = 1200 K)

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Figure 10

Comparison of experimental and simulated mole fractions of some of the main combustion products as a function of distance from burner surface for atmospheric premixed kerosene flames. Two stoichiometries are shown: dashed line and filled triangles are φ = 1.14; solid lines and filled squares are φ = 0.960. Filled squares and triangles represent the experiments; solid and dashed lines are simulations. The values reported are for dry gases, except for OH.

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Figure 11

Comparison of experimental and simulated mole fractions of some of the main combustion products as a function of distance from burner surface for atmospheric premixed biokerosene flames. Two stoichiometries are shown: dashed line and filled triangles are φ = 1.14; solid lines and filled squares are φ = 0.960. Filled squares and triangles represent the experiments; solid and dashed lines are simulations. The values reported are for dry gases, except for OH.

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Figure 12

Comparison of experimental and simulated OH profiles for lean (φ = 0.960) atmospheric premixed kerosene and biokerosene flames. Filled squares and triangles represent the experiments; solid and dashed lines are simulations. Dashed line and filled triangles represent kerosene; solid line and filled squares are biokerosene.

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