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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Experimental Analysis of Confined Jet Flames by Laser Measurement Techniques

[+] Author and Article Information
Oliver Lammel1

 German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Combustion Technology, Pfaffenwaldring 38-40, D-70569 Stuttgart, Germanyoliver.lammel@dlr.de

Michael Stöhr, Peter Kutne, Claudiu Dem, Wolfgang Meier, Manfred Aigner

 German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Combustion Technology, Pfaffenwaldring 38-40, D-70569 Stuttgart, Germany

1

Corresponding author.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 134(4), 041506 (Feb 01, 2012) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4004733 History: Received June 20, 2011; Accepted June 21, 2011; Published February 01, 2012; Online February 01, 2012

An experimental analysis of confined premixed turbulent methane/air and hydrogen/air jet flames is presented. A generic lab scale burner for high-velocity preheated jets equipped with an optical combustion chamber was designed and set up. The size and operating conditions were configured to enable flame stabilization by recirculation of hot combustion products. The geometry of the rectangular confinement and an off-center positioning of the jet nozzle were chosen to resemble one burner nozzle of a FLOX® -based combustor. The off-center jet arrangement caused the formation of a pronounced lateral recirculation zone similar to the one in previously investigated FLOX® -combustors (Lückerath , 2007. “FLOX® Combustion at High Pressure with Different Fuel Compositions,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 130 (1), pp. 011505; Lammel , 2010. “FLOX® Combustion at High Power Density and High Flame Temperatures,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 132 (12), p. 121503ff). The analysis was accomplished by different laser measurement techniques. Flame structures were visualized by OH* chemiluminescence imaging and planar laser-induced fluorescence of the OH radical. Laser Raman scattering was used to determine concentrations of the major species and the temperature. Velocity fields were measured with particle image velocimetry. Results of measurements in two confined jet flames are shown. The mixing of fresh gas with recirculating combustion products and the stabilization of the methane flame are discussed in detail. The presented findings deliver important information for the understanding of confined jet flames operated with different fuels. The obtained data sets can be used for the validation of numerical simulations as well.

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Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Burner and combustion chamber

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Figure 2

Infrastructure. TC1: permanent thermocouple, TC2: removable thermocouple.

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Figure 6

PIV results. (a)–(d) methane/air flame, (e)–(g) hydrogen/air flame. (a) and (e) streamline plots of the mean flow field. (d) RMS values. All others instantaneous flow fields.

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Figure 7

OH*-CL and PLIF results. (a) – (e) methane/air flame. (a) averaged OH*-CL image. (b) OH*-CL RMS values. (c) composition of PLIF single shot images. (d) and (e) randomly selected PLIF frames at two different measurement positions. (f) hydrogen/air flame, averaged OH*-CL image.

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Figure 8

Raman results for methane/air flame. (a) average fuel distribution c(CH4 ). (b) average oxygen distribution c(O2 ). (c) average temperature field T. (d) average water distribution c(H2 O). (e) average carbon dioxide distribution c(CO2 ), (f) corresponding RMS values σc (CO2 ).

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Figure 9

Raman results for methane/air flame. (a) position markers for scatter plots. (b) scatter plot of c(CH4 ) versus temperature. (c) scatter plot of c(H2 O) versus c(O2 ).

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