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Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

Ion Current, Combustion and Emission Characteristics in an Automotive Common Rail Diesel Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
Naeim A. Henein, Tamer Badawy, Nilesh Rai, Walter Bryzik

 Wayne State University College of Engineering, 5050 Anthony Wayne Drive, Detroit, MI 48202

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 134(4), 042801 (Jan 25, 2012) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4004074 History: Received June 18, 2010; Revised July 27, 2010; Published January 25, 2012; Online January 25, 2012

Advanced electronically controlled diesel engines require a feedback signal to the ECU to adjust different operating parameters and meet demands for power, better fuel economy and low emissions. Different types of in-cylinder combustion sensors are being considered to produce this signal. This paper presents results of an experimental investigation on the characteristics of the ion current in an automotive diesel engine equipped with a common rail injection system. The engine is a 1.9 L, 4-cylinder, direct injection diesel engine. Experiments covered different engine loads and injection pressures. The relationships between the ion current, combustion parameters and engine out NO emissions and opacity are presented. The analysis of the experimental data identified possible sources of the ion current produced in diesel engines.

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Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Engine experimental setup

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Figure 2

Ion current and glow plug electrical circuit

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Figure 3

Sample traces of the ion current signal, cylinder gas pressure, needle lift and RHR in cylinder # 4 [VW, 0% EGR, 100 Vs, 100 Cycle average, 1800 RPM, SOI 13.25° BTDC, Inj. Press = 850 bar, and IMEP = 11 bar].

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Figure 4

Effect of voltage for two different probe lengths [VW, Cyl#4, ULSD, 0% EGR, 1800 RPM, SOI 13.25° BTDC, Inj. Press 550bar, IMEP 11 bar, Variable Voltage (100 & 600 V),Ion Sensor Length-(Short & Long)].

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Figure 5

View of the combustion chamber, fuel sprays and ion current probe locations

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Figure 6

Effect of soot deposition on the ion current signal [VW, Cyl # 4, ULSD, 0% EGR, 1800 RPM, IMEP 10 bar, Inj. Pressure 250 bar, SOI 13.25° BTDC].

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Figure 7

Effect of polarity on the ion current signal [VW, Cyl#4, ULSD, 0% EGR, 1800 RPM, SOI 13.25° BTDC, Inj. Press 600 bar, IMEP 9 bar, Var. Voltage, and Polarity -100 to 100 Vs].

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Figure 8

Effect of injection pressure [VW, Cyl#4, ULSD, 0% EGR, 1800 RPM, SOI 13.25° BTDC, IMEP 11 bar, Var. injection Press (400▴, 550▪, 700• & 850+ bar)]

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Figure 9

Effect of injection pressure on RHR and ion current peaks, NO and opacity [VW, Cyl#4, ULSD, 0% EGR, 1800 RPM, SOI 13.25° BTDC, IMEP 11 bar, Var. injection Press (400, 550, 700 & 850 bar)]

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Figure 10

Effect of injection pressure on ignition delay and timing of the ion current events [VW, Cyl#4, ULSD, 0% EGR, 1800 RPM, SOI 13.25° BTDC, IMEP 11 bar, Var. injection Press (400, 550, 700 & 850 bar)]

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Figure 11

Effect of load [VW, Cyl#4, ULSD, 0% EGR, 1800 RPM, SOI 13.25° BTDC, injection Press 850 bar, Var. IMEP (5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 &11 bar)]

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Figure 12

Effect of load on RHR and ion current peaks, NO and opacity [VW, Cyl#4, ULSD, 0% EGR, 1800 RPM, SOI 13.25° BTDC, injection Press 850 bar, Var. IMEP (5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 &11 bar)].

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Figure 13

Effect of load and injection pressure, ion current Imax , NO emissions and opacity [VW, Cyl#4, 0% EGR, 1800 RPM, NO, and Opacity trends]

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