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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Fuel Flexibility in LM2500 and LM6000 Dry Low Emission Engines

[+] Author and Article Information
John Blouch

 GE Global Research Center, One Research Circle, Niskayuna, NY 12309 e-mail: john.blouch@ge.comGE Aviation, One Neumann Way, Cincinnati, OH 45246

Hejie Li

 GE Global Research Center, One Research Circle, Niskayuna, NY 12309 e-mail: john.blouch@ge.comhejie.li@ge.comGE Aviation, One Neumann Way, Cincinnati, OH 45246hejie.li@ge.com

Mark Mueller

 GE Global Research Center, One Research Circle, Niskayuna, NY 12309 e-mail: john.blouch@ge.commark.a.mueller@ge.comGE Aviation, One Neumann Way, Cincinnati, OH 45246mark.a.mueller@ge.com

Richard Hook

 GE Global Research Center, One Research Circle, Niskayuna, NY 12309 e-mail: john.blouch@ge.comrichard.hook@ge.comGE Aviation, One Neumann Way, Cincinnati, OH 45246richard.hook@ge.com

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 134(5), 051503 (Feb 29, 2012) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4004213 History: Received April 25, 2011; Revised May 10, 2011; Published February 29, 2012; Online February 29, 2012

The LM2500 and LM6000 dry-low-emissions aeroderivative gas turbine engines have been in commercial service for 15 years and have accumulated nearly 10 × 106 hours of commercial operation. The majority of these engines utilize pipeline quality natural gas predominantly comprised of methane. There is; however, increasing interest in nonstandard fuels that contain varying levels of higher hydrocarbon species and/or inert gases. This paper reports on the demonstrated operability of LM2500 and LM6000 DLE engines with nonstandard fuels. In particular, rig tests at engine conditions were performed to demonstrate the robustness of the dual-annular counter-rotating swirlers premixer design, relative to flameholding with fuels containing high ethane, propane, and N2 concentrations. These experiments, which test the ability of the hardware to shed a flame introduced into the premixing region, have been used to expand the quoting limits for LM2500 and LM6000 gas turbine engines to elevated C2+ levels. In addition, chemical kinetics analysis was performed to understand the effect of temperature, pressure, and fuel compositions on flameholding. Test data for different fuels and operating conditions were successfully correlated with Damkohler number.

Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Cross section of DACRS premixer

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Figure 2

High-pressure, 2- cup combustion test rig

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Figure 3

Cross section of the high pressure 2- cup combustion test rig

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Figure 4

Schematic of fuel supply to the two DLE premixers in combustion rig

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Figure 5

Transient response of premixer TC’s at conditions where flameholding did not occur

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Figure 6

Transient response of premixer TC’s when flameholding occurred on second pulse of H2 torch

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Figure 7

Flameholding test results with propane mixed with natural gas

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Figure 8

Effect of flame temperature on flameholding. Propane mixed with natural gas.

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Figure 9

Effect of T3 on flameholding. Propane mixed with natural gas. (Flame temperature was kept constant.)

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Figure 10

Effect of DP/P on flameholding. Propane mixed with natural gas. (Flame temperature was kept constant.)

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Figure 11

Comparison between ethane and propane flameholding tendency when mixed with natural gas

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Figure 12

Schematic of the perfectly stirred reactor used to model flameholding in DLE premixers

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Figure 13

Product temperature as a function of PSR residence time, showing the definition of blowoff time

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Figure 14

Comparison of calculated blowoff time with flameholding probability. Dot: test data; dash line: binary regression. 300 psia, 1000 °F, dP/P = 3%, Tflame = 3200 °F.

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Figure 15

Effect of P3 and T3 on blowoff time and flameholding probability. 51% C3 H8 (by vol) in natural gas.

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Figure 16

Calculated blowoff time as a function of propane or ethane in fuel. 295 psia, 1010 °F.

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Figure 17

LM6000 flameholding test data for different test conditions

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Figure 18

Damkohler number at flameholding boundary for different test conditions

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