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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Hydroprocessed Renewable Jet Fuel Evaluation, Performance, and Emissions in a T63 Turbine Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
C. D. Klingshirn, M. DeWitt, R. Striebich, D. Anneken, L. Shafer, E. Corporan, M. Wagner, D. Brigalli

 University of Dayton Research Institute, 300 College Park, Dayton, OH 45469 Air Force Research Laboratory WPAFB, 2689 G. Street, Building 190, Dayton, OH 45433

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 134(5), 051506 (Mar 06, 2012) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4004841 History: Received June 23, 2011; Revised June 30, 2011; Published March 06, 2012; Online March 06, 2012

Due to potential beneficial environmental impacts and increased supply availability, alternative fuels derived from renewable resources are evolving on the forefront as unconventional substitutes for fossil fuel. Focus is being given to the evaluation and certification of Hydroprocessed Renewable Jet (HRJ), a fuel produced from animal fat and/or plant oils (triglycerides) by hydroprocessing, as the next potential synthetic aviation fuel. Extensive efforts have recently been performed at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) at Wright Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) to evaluate the potential of two HRJ fuels produced from camelina and tallow feedstocks. These have included characterization of the fuel chemical, physical fuel characteristics and Fit-for-Purpose properties (FFP). The present effort describes general combustion performance and the emission propensity of a T63-A-700 Allison turbine engine operated on the HRJs and 50/50 (by volume) HRJ/JP-8 fuel blends relative to a specification JP-8. In addition, engine and emission testing with a blend of the tallow-derived HRJ and 16% bio-derived aromatic components was completed. Fundamental engine performance characterization allows for determination of the suitability of potential synthetic fuels while quantitation of gaseous and particulate matter emissions provides an assessment of the potential environmental impact compared to current petroleum-derived fuels. In addition, an extended 150 h endurance test was performed using a 50/50 blend of tallow-derived HRJ with JP-8 to evaluate the long-term operation of the engine with the synthetic fuel blend. This paper discusses the laboratory testing performed to characterize HRJs and results from the basic engine operability and emissions studies of the alternative fuel blends.

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Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 14

Fuel nozzle of T63 engine operated on: (a) HRJ blend for 150 h, (b) JP-8 for 175 h

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Figure 1

Chromatograms of HRJ tallow, HRJ camelina, & JP-8 (n-paraffins identified)

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Figure 2

T63 A-700 engine

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Figure 3

Flow diagram of sampling line and instrumentation

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Figure 4

Normalized particle emissions index of HRJ & respective blends

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Figure 5

Particle size distribution at engine idle condition

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Figure 6

Particle size distributions at engine cruise condition

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Figure 7

Comparisons of normalized total particle mass

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Figure 8

Normalized smoke number results cruise engine conditions

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Figure 9

Comparison of carbon monoxide as a function of engine condition

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Figure 10

Comparisons of unburned hydrocarbons emissions at idle condition

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Figure 11

Comparisons of HAPS normalized to JP-8 at idle engine condition

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Figure 12

Detailed drawing of T63 combustion section

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Figure 13

Combustor T63 engine operated on: (a) HRJ blend for 150 h, (b) JP-8 for 175 h

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