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Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Measurement of Volatile Particulate Matter Emissions From Aircraft Engines Using a Simulated Plume Aging System

[+] Author and Article Information
Jay Peck1

 Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MAjpeck@aerodyne.com

Michael T. Timko, Zhenhong Yu, Hsi-Wu Wong, Scott C. Herndon, Richard C. Miake-Lye

 Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA

Paul E. Yelvington2

 Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA

Changlie Wey

 ASRC Aerospace Corp., Cleveland, OH

Edward L. Winstead

 Science Systems and Applications, Inc., Hampton, VA

Luke D. Ziemba, Bruce E. Anderson

 NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA

1

Corresponding author.

2

Present address: Mainstream Engineering Corp, Rockledge, Florida.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 134(6), 061503 (Apr 12, 2012) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4005988 History: Received October 08, 2011; Revised October 11, 2011; Published April 09, 2012; Online April 12, 2012

Aircraft exhaust contains nonvolatile (soot) particulate matter (PM), trace gas pollutants, and volatile PM precursor material. Nonvolatile soot particles are predominantly present at the engine exit plane, but volatile PM precursors form new particles or add mass to the existing ones as the exhaust is diluted and cooled. Accurately characterizing the volatile PM mass, number, and size distribution is challenging due to this evolving nature and the impact of local ambient conditions on the gas-to-particle conversion processes. To accurately and consistently measure the aircraft PM emissions, a dilution and aging sampling system that can condense volatile precursors to particle phase to simulate the atmospheric evolution of aircraft engine exhaust has been developed. In this paper, a field demonstration of its operation is described. The dilution/aging probe system was tested using both a combustor rig and on-wing CFM56-7 engines. During the combustor rig testing at NASA Glenn Research Center, the dilution/aging probe supported formation of both nucleation/growth mode particles and soot coatings. The results showed that by increasing residence time, the nucleation particles become larger in size, increase in total mass, and decrease in number. During the on-wing CFM56-7 engine testing at Chicago Midway Airport, the dilution/aging probe was able to form soot coatings along with nucleation mode particles, unlike conventional 1-m probe engine measurements. The number concentration of nucleation particles depended on the sample fraction and relative humidity of the dilution air. The performance of the instrument is analyzed and explained using computational microphysics simulations.

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Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Schematic of the inlet region of the plume dilution/aging chamber

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Figure 2

Comparison of the particle number concentrations between the thermally denuded and undenuded samples through the SAEPA probe

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Figure 3

Particle size distribution (EEPS) obtained using the dilution/aging chamber during the CE-5 combustor rig tests

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Figure 4

Nucleation mode geometric mean diameter (GMD) versus exhaust sample fraction

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Figure 5

Nucleation mode peak magnitude versus mean diameter in the number (GMD) and mass (MMD) domains

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Figure 6

Microphysical simulation result of the nucleation particle size distribution representing the CE-5 test conditions (the monodisperse soot mode is not shown)

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Figure 7

Impact of the water content in the dilution stream

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Figure 8

Particle size distribution (EEPS) obtained using the SAEPA probe during the MDW-10 test. Higher CO2 level indicates a higher sample fraction (f).

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Figure 9

Microphysical simulation result of the nucleation particle size distribution representing the MDW-10 test conditions (the monodisperse soot mode not shown)

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