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Gas Turbines: Coal, Biomass, and Alternative Fuels

Analysis of a Micro Gas Turbine Fed by Natural Gas and Synthesis Gas: MGT Test Bench and Combustor CFD Analysis

[+] Author and Article Information
M. Cadorin, M. Pinelli, A. Vaccari

 Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Università di Ferrara, Ferrara, 44122, Italy

R. Calabria, F. Chiariello, P. Massoli

 Istituto Motori - CNR, Napoli, 80125, Italy

E. Bianchi

 Turbec S.p.A., Corporeno di Cento (FE), 44040, Italy

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 134(7), 071401 (May 23, 2012) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4005977 History: Received August 13, 2011; Revised September 13, 2011; Published May 23, 2012; Online May 23, 2012

In recent years, the interest in the research on energy production systems fed by biofuels has increased. Gaseous fuels obtained through biomass conversion processes such as gasification, pyrolysis and pyrogasification are generally defined as synthesis gas (syngas). The use of synthesis gas in small-size energy systems, such as those used for distributed micro-cogeneration, has not yet reached a level of technological maturity that could allow a large market diffusion. For this reason, further analyses (both experimental and numerical) have to be carried out to allow these technologies to achieve performance and reliability typical of established technologies based on traditional fuels. In this paper, a numerical analysis of a combustor of a 100-kW micro gas turbine fed by natural gas and biomass-derived synthesis gas is presented. The work has been developed in the framework of a collaboration between the Engineering Department of the University of Ferrara, the Istituto Motori - CNR (Napoli), and Turbec S.p A. of Corporeno di Cento (FE). The main features of the micro gas turbine Turbec T100, located at the Istituto Motori - CNR, are firstly described. A decompression and distribution system allows the feeding of the micro gas turbine with gaseous fuels characterized by different compositions. Moreover, a system of remote monitoring and control together with a data transfer system has been developed in order to set the operative parameters of the machine. The results of the tests performed under different operating conditions are then presented. Subsequently, the paper presents the numerical analysis of a model of the micro gas turbine combustor. The combustor model is validated against manufacturer performance data and experimental data with respect to steady state performance, i.e., average outlet temperature and emission levels. A sensitivity analysis on the model capability to simulate different operating conditions is then performed. The combustor model is used to simulate the combustion of a syngas, composed of different ratios of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, carbon dioxide and water. The results in terms of flame displacement, temperature and emission distribution and values are analyzed and compared to the natural gas simulations. Finally, some simple modifications to the combustion chamber are proposed and simulated both with natural gas and syngas feeding.

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Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

MGT components: (a) single-shaft compressor/turbine and (b) combustion chamber

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Figure 2

Combustion chamber of Turbec T100

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Figure 3

Boundary conditions used in numerical calculations

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Figure 4

Tetrahedral-hexahedral hybrid grid: (a) full model and (b) inside particular

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Figure 5

Streamlines for the standard fuel distribution (15% at pilot line and 85% at main line)

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Figure 6

Streamlines in a longitudinal plane

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Figure 7

Temperature distribution in a longitudinal plane

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Figure 8

(a) Nondimensional CO distribution and (b) nondimensional NO distribution in a longitudinal plane

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Figure 9

Nondimensional temperature distribution in a longitudinal and a transversal plane (baseline case)

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Figure 10

Temperature distribution in a longitudinal and a transversal plane (cases a, b and c)

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Figure 11

Nondimensional distribution in a longitudinal plane of: (a) temperature, (b) CO molar fraction and (c) NO molar fraction

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Figure 12

Comparison of the results of the geometry modifications in the case of syngas feeding: (a) standard geometry, (b) modification M1 and (c) modification M2. Temperature distribution in a longitudinal plane.

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