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Internal Combustion Engines

Controlling Gasoline Low Temperature Combustion by Diesel Micro Pilot Injection

[+] Author and Article Information
Johannes Eichmeier1

Karlsruhe Institute of Technology,  Institut für Kolbenmaschinen,Department of Mechanical Engineering, Karlsruhe, Germanyjohannes.eichmeier@kit.edu

Uwe Wagner

Karlsruhe Institute of Technology,  Institut für Kolbenmaschinen,Department of Mechanical Engineering, Karlsruhe, Germanyuwe.wagner@kit.edu

Ulrich Spicher

Karlsruhe Institute of Technology,  Institut für Kolbenmaschinen,Department of Mechanical Engineering, Karlsruhe, Germanyulrich.spicher@kit.edu

1

Corresponding author.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 134(7), 072802 (May 23, 2012) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4005997 History: Received October 25, 2011; Revised October 26, 2011; Published May 23, 2012; Online May 23, 2012

The simultaneous reduction of fuel consumption and pollutant emissions, namely NOx and soot, is the predominant goal in modern engine development. In this context, low temperature combustion concepts are believed to be the most promising approaches to resolve the above mentioned conflict of goals. Disadvantageously these combustion concepts show high peak pressures or high rates of pressure rise due to early ignition and high reaction rates especially at high loads. Furthermore, there are still challenges in controlling combustion phasing. In this context using a small amount of pilot diesel injected directly into the combustion chamber to ignite a highly diluted gasoline air mixture can overcome the aforementioned difficulties. As the gasoline does not ignite without the diesel, the pilot injection timing can be used to control combustion phasing. By increasing dilution even high loads with low rates of pressure rise and without knocking are possible. This paper shows the results of experimental investigations carried out on a heavy duty boosted single cylinder diesel engine. Based on the indicated cylinder pressure, the combustion process is characterized by performing knock analyses as well as thermodynamic analyses. Furthermore, an optically accessible engine has been set up to investigate both the diesel injection and the combustion process by means of digital high speed imaging. Together with the thermodynamic analyses the results of these optical investigations make up the base for the presented theoretical model of this combined diesel-gasoline combustion process. To show the load potential of this Dual-Fuel-CAI concept, the engine was operated at 2100 1/min with an IMEP of 19 bar. NOx emissions did not exceed 0.027 g/kWh.

Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Cylinder head with endoscopic access points

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Figure 2

Test bed’s schematic diagram

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Figure 3

3 50%–MFB and COVIMEP versus pilot diesel injection timing

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Figure 4

Indicated specific NOx and soot emissions versus pilot diesel injection timing

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Figure 5

Indicated specific CO and HC emissions and indicated specific fuel consumption bi versus pilot diesel injection timing

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Figure 6

Engine stress due to knock and pressure rise rate versus pilot diesel injection timing

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Figure 7

Pressure traces and ROHR for different diesel injection timings

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Figure 8

Pilot diesel injection (time base: crank angle degree after start of injection)

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Figure 9

Combustion process for four different pilot diesel injection timings

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Figure 10

Theoretical model for the DUAL-FUEL-CAI combustion process

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Figure 11

Setting parameters for the three scenarios

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Figure 12

Engine stress and 50%–MFB versus dilution

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Figure 13

Indicated specific NOx and soot emissions versus dilution

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Figure 14

50%–MFB and indicated fuel consumption bi versus pilot diesel injection timing

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Figure 15

Indicated specific NOx and soot emissions versus pilot diesel injection timing

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Figure 16

Engine stress due to knock and pressure rise rate versus pilot diesel injection timing

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