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Internal Combustion Engines

Cylinder Liner in Ductile Cast Iron for High Loaded Combustion Diesel Engines

[+] Author and Article Information
Edney Deschauer Rejowski, Edmo Soares

MAHLE Brazil, Jundiaí, São Paulo, 13210-877 Brazil

Ingo Roth, Steffen Rudolph

MAHLE Germany, Stuttgart, 70376 Germany

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 134(7), 072807 (May 29, 2012) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4006071 History: Received November 01, 2011; Revised December 05, 2011; Published May 29, 2012; Online May 29, 2012

With the increase of combustion loading and the trend to reduce engine size, there is a need for thinner but stronger wet cylinder liners. While most of the current cylinder liners are made of gray cast iron, due to its good tribological behavior, machinability performance, and competitive price, alternative casting materials such as compact graphite iron, ductile iron, and even steel are being considered to address future engine demands. In this paper, a new ductile iron (DI) cast material for wet cylinder liners is presented. The material has about 60 and 70% higher limits, respectively, for tensile stress and fatigue resistance as compared to conventional gray cast irons, but without a penalty on the tribological properties. There is also a potential improvement to avoid cavitation on the outside surface due to its higher young modulus, which also equates to a higher stiffness.

The tested cylinder liners were induction hardened on the running surface and a slide hone process was used to improve wear and scuffing resistance. The liners were tested in a heavy duty diesel (HDD) engine with a peak cylinder pressure (PCP) of 245 bar and showed similar wear as observed with conventional cylinder liners of gray cast iron material. The DI cylinder liners were also tested in an abusive scuffing engine test without any concern. The improved mechanical properties of the described new DI material introduce possibilities to reduce the liner wall thickness or increase specific output. The preliminary evaluation in this paper showed that this new material is feasible for HDD diesel engines with a PCP up to 250 bar. In cases where the customer needs to increase the bore diameter for output reasons there is the potential to reduce the liner wall thickness by up to 25% based on high mechanical properties (UTS, Young’s modulus and fatigue strength). In both cases, a FEA analysis to support the new component design is recommended.

Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Microstructures of ductile iron. (a) As-cast ferritic. (b) As-cast pearlitic, 255 HB hardness. (c) Ferritic, annealed 3 h at 700°C. (d) Pearlitic ductile iron oil quenched and tempered to 255 HB. All etched in 2% nital. 100 × [4].

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Figure 2

Metallurgical analysis of ductile cast iron after the complete foundry process and the material hardness analysis

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Figure 3

Average measure of UTS from 2 casting tubes after the complete foundry process route

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Figure 4

Fatigue strength property of the DI material in comparison to the conventional gray cast iron in accordance to ISO1143

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Figure 5

Conventional machine process for ductile cast iron cylinder liners

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Figure 6

General overview of the transversal section of the cylinder liner wall thickness, highlighting the core and the induction hardening layer on the running surface

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Figure 7

Details of the induction hardened zone in the cylinder liner running surface

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Figure 8

Detail of the induction hardening layer and its respective thickness values

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Figure 9

Liner roughness before and after the scuffing engine test; cyl. #6, TDC region

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Figure 10

Visual aspects of cylinder liners 1, 2, and 3 after the scuffing engine test

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Figure 11

Visual aspects of cylinder liners 4, 5, and 6 after the scuffing engine test

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Figure 12

Roughness on the thrust side at the TDC region of cylinder liners #2, #4, and #6 before the durability test

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Figure 13

Roughness on the thrust side at the TDC region of cylinder liners #2, #4, and #6 after the durability test

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Figure 14

Fax-film analysis from the middle region of cylinder liner #6 before the durability engine test

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Figure 15

Visual aspects of cylinder liners 2, 4, and 6 after the durability engine test

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Figure 16

Straightness measurement at the TDC region on the thrust side of the DI cylinder liners after the durability engine test

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