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Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Emission Measurements and CH* Chemiluminescence of a Staged Combustion Rig for Stationary Gas Turbine Applications

[+] Author and Article Information
Warren G. Lamont

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories, School of Aeronautics and Astronautics,  Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907wlamont@purdue.edu

Mario Roa

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories, School of Aeronautics and Astronautics,  Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907mroa@purdue.edu

Scott E. Meyer

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories,  Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907meyerse@purdue.edu

Robert P. Lucht

School of Mechanical Engineering,  Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907lucht@purdue.edu

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 134(8), 081502 (Jun 21, 2012) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4006604 History: Received August 01, 2011; Revised April 10, 2012; Published June 21, 2012; Online June 21, 2012

An optically accessible combustion rig was constructed to study the combustion characteristics of a reactive jet in a vitiated crossflow. The rig features two staged combustion zones. The main combustion zone is a swirl stabilized dump combustor. The second combustion zone, which is axially downstream from the main combustion zone, is formed by a transverse jet injecting either fuel or a premixed fuel/air mixture into the vitiated stream. The rig was designed to investigate the transverse jet conditions, equivalence ratio, and momentum ratios that produce low NOx and give an adequate temperature rise before the simulated high pressure turbine. A water-cooled sampling probe extracts exhaust gas downstream for emission measurements. As a baseline, the main combustion zone was fired without the transverse jet and the results compare closely to the work of previous researchers. The emission survey with the transverse jet found several conditions that show a benefit of staging compared to the baseline of firing only the main combustion zone. The flame structure from the transverse jet was captured using high speed CH* chemiluminescence, which shows the extent of the flame front and its penetration depth into the vitiated stream. The chemiluminescence images were averaged and compared to the Holdeman correlation, which showed good agreement for injection with fuel only but poorer agreement when premixed.

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Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Overview of experimental rig

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Figure 2

Enlarged view of the combustion portion of the rig (all dimensions in mm)

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Figure 3

Experimental system for the imaging of CH* chemiluminescence

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Figure 4

Corrected NOx versus diabatic flame temperature for MCZ baseline with data from Leonard and Stegmaier [28]. Note the overall equivalence ratio axis does not apply to the Leonard and Stegmaier data.

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Figure 5

JIC emission survey: (a) corrected NOx emissions and (b) temperature change. Red markers indicate benefit of staging.

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Figure 6

Corrected NOx emissions as a function of (a) JIC equivalence ratio and (b) momentum ratio. Red markers indicate benefit of staging.

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Figure 7

Corrected NOx emissions as a function of SCZ equivalence ratio. Colored by temperature change (T5.5-T3).

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Figure 8

CH* chemiluminescence measurement time series for one beneficial staging condition: 15 mm JIC injector (d), Δt=0.21 ms, φj=0.949, J=11.4, T5.5-T3=44 K. The solid line at the bottom left shows the position and extent of the JIC injector. The blue bars at the top and bottom of the images represent the extent of the combustion chamber.

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Figure 9

Average CH* chemiluminescence images from the 2 mm diameter JIC injector with various JIC equivalence ratios and momentum ratios: (a) J = 12.0, φj=∞ (fuel only), (b) J = 32.7, φj=∞ (fuel only), and (c) J = 52.6, φj=43.58

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Figure 11

Average CH* chemiluminescence images from the 15 mm diameter JIC injector with various JIC equivalence ratios and momentum ratios: (a) J = 4.3, φj=1.73, (b) J = 9.0, φj=1.41, and (c) J = 15.1, φj=1.19

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Figure 10

Average CH* chemiluminescence images from the 10 mm diameter JIC injector with various JIC equivalence ratios and momentum ratios: (a) J = 5.7, φj=2.88, (b) J = 11.6, φj=2.1, and (c) J = 19.7, φj=1.82

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