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Gas Turbines: Structures and Dynamics

Experimental Investigation of Turbine Stator Well Rim Seal, Re-Ingestion and Interstage Seal Flows Using Gas Concentration Techniques and Displacement Measurements

[+] Author and Article Information
D. Eastwood1

 Thermo-Fluid Mechanics Research Centre, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9QT, UKde23@sussex.ac.uk

D. D. Coren, C. A. Long

 Thermo-Fluid Mechanics Research Centre, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9QT, UK

N. R. Atkins2

 Thermo-Fluid Mechanics Research Centre, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9QT, UK

P. R. N. Childs

 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington, London, SW7 2AZ, UK

T. J. Scanlon

 Fluid Systems Group, Rolls-Royce plc, Derby, UK

A. Guijarro-Valencia

 Thermal Systems, Rolls-Royce plc, Derby, UK

1

Corresponding author.

2

Present address: Now at the Whittle Laboratory. University of Cambridge, 1 J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0DY, UK.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 134(8), 082501 (Jun 21, 2012) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4005967 History: Received June 26, 2011; Revised October 08, 2011; Published June 21, 2012; Online June 21, 2012

Gas turbine engine performance requires effective and reliable internal cooling over the duty cycle of the engine. Life predictions for rotating components subject to the main gas path temperatures are vital. This demands increased precision in the specification of the internal air system flows which provide turbine stator well cooling and sealing. This in turn requires detailed knowledge of the flow rates through rim seals and interstage labyrinth seals. Knowledge of seal movement and clearances at operating temperatures is of great importance when prescribing these flows. A test facility has been developed at the University of Sussex, incorporating a two stage turbine rated at 400 kW with an individual stage pressure ratio of 1.7:1. The mechanical design of the test facility allows internal cooling geometry to be rapidly reconfigured, while cooling flow rates of between 0.71 CW, ENT and 1.46 CW, ENT , may be set to allow ingress or egress dominated cavity flows. The main annulus and cavity conditions correspond to in cavity rotational Reynolds numbers of 1.71 × 106 < Reϕ <1.93 × 106 . Displacement sensors have been used to establish hot running seal clearances over a range of stator well flow conditions, allowing realistic flow rates to be calculated. Additionally, gas seeding techniques have been developed, where stator well and main annulus flow interactions are evaluated by measuring changes in gas concentration. Experiments have been performed which allow rim seal and re-ingestion flows to be quantified. It will be shown that this work develops the measurement of stator well cooling flows and provides data suitable for the validation of improved thermo-mechanical and CFD codes, beneficial to the engine design process.

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Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Test section geometry

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Figure 2

Stator well and seal dimensions

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Figure 3

Rim seal exchange experimental flows

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Figure 4

Re-ingestion experimental flows

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Figure 5

Comparison of CFD and calculated seal flows using CD  = 0.48. Upstream to downstream seal pressure ratios = 1.333 – 1.348.

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Figure 6

Radial sensor output, rotational speed and rotor-stator temperatures for a full test cycle

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Figure 7

Cooling supply geometries

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Figure 8

Measured dilution ratios for 39 and 26 drive arm holes, at cooling flow rates of 0.77 CW, ENT and 1.04 CW, ENT , 1.76 × 106  < Reϕ  < 1.86 × 106

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Figure 9

Cavity streamlines for drive arm configuration colored by normalized absolute frame total temperature, interstage seal flow = 0.9 CW, ENT

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Figure 10

Measured dilution ratios 39 and 26 lock plate slots, at cooling flow rates of 0.77 CW, ENT and 1.04 CW, ENT , 1.76 × 106  < Reϕ  < 1.86 × 106

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Figure 11

Measured re-ingestion rates for wheelspace egress rates of 0.46IS to 0.59IS, Reϕ  = 1.65 × 106

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Figure 12

Measured re-ingestion rates for wheelspace egress rates of 0.46IS to 0.59IS, Reϕ  = 1.65 × 106

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Figure 13

Percentage re-ingestion rates for wheelspace egress expressed as a fraction of main annulus flow, Reϕ  = 1.65 × 106

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Figure 14

Streamlines of wheelspace egressed coolant

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