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Internal Combustion Engines

Effect of Hydrocarbon Emissions From PCCI-Type Combustion on the Performance of Selective Catalytic Reduction Catalysts

[+] Author and Article Information
Vitaly Y. Prikhodko1

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TNprikhodkovy@ornl.gov

Josh A. Pihl, Samuel A. Lewis, James E. Parks

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN

“Fouling”: catalyst deactivation mechanism described by Bartholomew as “the physical (mechanical) deposition of species from the fluid phase onto the catalyst surface, which results in activity loss due to blockage of sites and/or pores.” [7].

1

Corresponding author.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 134(8), 082804 (Jun 19, 2012) (5 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4006003 History: Received October 28, 2011; Revised October 31, 2011; Published June 19, 2012; Online June 19, 2012

Core samples cut from full size commercial Fe-and Cu- zeolite selective catalytic reduction catalysts were exposed to a slipstream of raw engine exhaust from a 1.9-liter 4-cylinder diesel engine operating in conventional and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion modes. Subsequently, the NOx reduction performance of the exposed catalysts was evaluated on a laboratory bench-reactor fed with simulated exhaust. The Fe-zeolite NOx conversion efficiency was significantly degraded, especially at low temperatures (<250 °C), after the catalyst was exposed to the engine exhaust. The degradation of the Fe-zeolite performance was similar for both combustion modes. The Cu-zeolite was much more resistant to hydrocarbon (HC) fouling than the Fe-zeolite catalyst. In the case of the Cu-zeolite, PCCI exhaust had a more significant impact than the exhaust from conventional combustion on the NOx conversion efficiency. For all cases, the clean catalyst performance was recovered after heating to 600 °C. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis of the HCs adsorbed to the catalyst surface provided insights into the observed NOx reduction performance trends.

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Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Cu-zeolite NOx conversion as a function of temperature for various states of catalyst exposure

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Figure 2

Cu-zeolite NOx conversion as a function of temperature for various states of catalyst exposure

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Figure 3

Hydrocarbon release during a temperature ramp of the Cu-zeolite catalyst after exposure to PCCI exhaust; release is observed as hydrocarbon and CO+CO2 species

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Figure 4

Integrated C released from Cu- and Fe-zeolite catalysts after exposure to both conventional and PCCI combustion

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Figure 5

Moles of NH3 stored on the SCR catalyst at various stages of the experimental study

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Figure 6

GC-MS trace of hydrocarbons extracted from the Cu-zeolite catalyst after exposure to (a) conventional and (b) PCCI combustion exhaust

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Figure 7

Magnitude of hydrocarbons adsorbed onto a Cu-zeolite core as a function of length along the flow axis as measured with DRIFTS

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