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Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

Cycle-Controlled Water Injection for Steady-State and Transient Emissions Reduction From a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
Rudolf H. Stanglmaier

 Markisches Werk GmbH, Haus Heide 21, 58553, Halver, Germany

Philip J. Dingle

 Delphi Diesel Systems, 5725 Delphi Drive, Troy, MI 48098

Daniel W. Stewart

 Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Rd., San Antonio, TX 78228

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 130(3), 032801 (Mar 26, 2008) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2830856 History: Received June 02, 2005; Revised September 25, 2007; Published March 26, 2008

A system for coinjecting mixtures of diesel fuel and water into a heavy-duty diesel engine has been developed and evaluated at the Southwest Research Institute. This system features prototype Lucas electronically controlled injectors, full electronic control, and can vary the percentage of water in the mixture on a cycle-resolved basis. Tests of this system were conducted on a production Volvo D-12 engine, and have produced reduced NOx and smoke emissions over steady-state and transient conditions. Water-diesel coinjection yielded a considerable improvement in NOx-smoke and NOx-BSFC trade-offs under steady-state engine operation. In addition, control of the water percentage on a cycle-resolved basis was shown to be an effective method for mitigating NOx and smoke emissions over step-load transients. Results from this work show that a combination of aggressive EGR and diesel+water coinjection is very promising for producing very low levels of engine-out exhaust emissions, reducing the water storage requirements, and improving fuel efficiency. Further refinement of this injection technology is in progress.

Copyright © 2008 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Schematic of the fuel+water coinjection system

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Figure 2

Schematic of control system for fuel+water coinjection system

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Figure 3

Normalized injection pressure comparing fuel-only and fuel+30% water injection cases, under equal engine operating conditions (1450rpm, 1300Nm)

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Figure 4

HRR comparing fuel-only and fuel+30% water injection cases, under equal engine operating conditions (1450rpm, 1300Nm)

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Figure 5

Normalized cylinder pressure comparing fuel-only and fuel+30% water injection cases, under equal engine operating conditions (1450rpm, 1300Nm)

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Figure 6

Smoke versus NOx for fuel only and fuel+30% water, as a function of injection timing. 1450rpm, 875Nm with and without EGR

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Figure 7

BSFC versus NOx for fuel only and fuel+30% water, as a function of injection timing. 1450rpm, 875Nm with and without EGR

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Figure 8

Exhaust CO concentration for fuel only and fuel+30% water, as a function of injection timing. 1450rpm, 875Nm with and without EGR.

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Figure 9

Exhaust HC concentration for fuel only and fuel+30% water, as a function of injection timing. 1450rpm, 875Nm with and without EGR

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Figure 10

Commanded water and∕or fuel injection rate during step-load transient

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Figure 11

Torque rise rate during step-load transient

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Figure 12

Approximate air to fuel ratio during the step-load transient

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Figure 13

Exhaust NOx concentration during the step-load transient

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Figure 14

Smoke opacity during the step-load transient

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Figure 15

Five different water injection schedules during a step-load transient.

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Figure 16

Exhaust NOx concentration during step-load transient for five water injection schedules and a fuel-only base line

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Figure 17

Smoke opacity during step-load transient for five water injection schedules and a fuel-only base line

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