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Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

Particle Image Velocimetry Measurements of In-Cylinder Flow in a Four-Stroke Utility Engine and Correlation With Combustion Measurements

[+] Author and Article Information
Karen E. Bevan

 Eaton Corporation, 26201 Northwestern Highway, Southfield, MI 48037

Jaal B. Ghandhi

125 Engineering Research Building 1500 Engineering Drive Madison, WI 53706–1687

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 130(3), 032802 (Mar 26, 2008) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2830547 History: Received August 04, 2005; Revised October 23, 2007; Published March 26, 2008

Large-scale flows in internal combustion engines directly affect combustion duration and emission production. The effect of intake port geometry on combustion performance was studied in a four-stroke spark-ignition utility engine. Three intake port geometries were investigated at three port orientations. In-cylinder flows in orthogonal planes were measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The PIV data were processed to calculate the large-scale mean vorticity and mean high-pass filtered velocity. Combustion performance data were separately acquired at two load conditions at a fixed equivalence ratio, and compared with the PIV data. The cumulative distribution functions of the flow parameters did not show significant port-to-port differences in either measurement plane. The mean vorticity and high-pass filtered velocity did exhibit differences due to port orientation in the horizontal plane, but not in the vertical plane. The 0 deg ports (tangential orientation) consistently produced the highest values of large-scale mean vorticity and mean high-pass filtered velocity in the horizontal plane. The kinetic energy present at ignition was also calculated to characterize the flow. The ensemble-averaged values of the mean large-scale vorticity, high-pass filtered velocity, and kinetic energy were compared to the combustion duration. The vertical-plane vorticity and high-pass filtered velocity did not correlate with combustion performance. The horizontal-plane vorticity and high-pass filtered velocity were found to exhibit modest correlation at the fixed torque condition, and somewhat lower correlation at the wide open throttle condition. The correlation between kinetic energy and combustion duration was poor. The best correlation of flow field structure with engine performance was achieved for ports at the 0 deg port orientation. Ports at this orientation generated coherent, large-scale swirl.

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Copyright © 2008 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Solid models of the three intake port geometries used in the experimental measurements. Shown are (a) the production port, (b) outer port, and (c) inner port.

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Figure 2

Top view of engine showing intake port at the (a) 0deg orientation and (b) 90deg orientation with respect to the engine cylinder

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Figure 3

(a) Side view of vertical PIV image plane (dashed) in the engine. The y axis (not shown) points into the page. The image plane is located at y=0: (b) Top view of horizontal PIV image plane (dashed) looking down on engine. The z-axis (not shown) points out of the page. The image plane is located at z=−14.75mm. All dimensions are in millimeters.

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Figure 4

(a) Ensemble-averaged of 135 PIV velocity distributions and (b) an instantaneous velocity distribution for the inner port at the 0-degree port orientation. The PIV images were acquired at 75 CA BTDC in the vertical PIV plane.

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Figure 5

CDFs of large-scale mean vorticity for all intake ports at three intake port orientations: (a) vertical plane (b) horizontal plane

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Figure 6

CDF of mean high-pass filtered velocity (a) vertical-plane u component, (b) vertical-plane w component, (c) horizontal-plane u component, and (d) horizontal-plane v component

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Figure 7

Instantaneous heat release for the (a) fixed torque (11.5Nm) and (b) WOT conditions with Φ=1.20 for the three intake ports at three intake port orientations (0deg, 45deg, and 90deg)

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Figure 8

Combustion duration versus mean value of large-scale mean vorticity for nine intake configurations. Combustion duration calculated for (a) fixed torque and (b) WOT conditions with Φ=1.20. Mean vorticity calculated from vertical-plane PIV velocity fields.

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Figure 9

Combustion duration versus mean value of large-scale mean vorticity for nine intake configurations. Combustion duration calculated for (a) fixed torque and (b) WOT conditions with Φ=1.20. Mean vorticity calculated from horizontal-plane PIV velocity fields.

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Figure 10

Combustion duration versus mean value of mean high-pass filtered velocity (u component) for nine intake configurations. Combustion duration calculated for (a) fixed torque and (b) WOT conditions. High-pass filtered velocity calculated for vertical plane.

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Figure 11

Combustion duration versus mean value of mean high-pass filtered velocity (u component) for nine intake configurations. Combustion duration calculated for (a) fixed torque and (b) WOT conditions. High-pass filtered velocity calculated for horizontal plane.

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Figure 12

Combustion duration versus mean value of mean high-pass filtered velocity (v component) for nine intake configurations. Combustion duration calculated for (a) fixed torque and (b) WOT conditions. High-pass filtered velocity calculated for horizontal plane.

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Figure 13

Combustion duration versus kinetic energy present at ignition, E, for nine intake port configurations at the (a) fixed torque condition with α=−95 and at (b) WOT with α=−100. The values for α were chosen from linear regression analysis.

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