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Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

Modeling the Effect of Injector Nozzle-Hole Layout on Diesel Engine Fuel Consumption and Emissions

[+] Author and Article Information
Sung Wook Park

Engine Research Center,  University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706

Rolf D. Reitz1

Engine Research Center,  University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706reitz@engr.wisc.edu

1

Corresponding author.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 130(3), 032805 (Mar 28, 2008) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2835352 History: Received April 09, 2007; Revised November 22, 2007; Published March 28, 2008

Numerical simulations were used to study the effect of reduced nozzle-hole size and nozzle tip hole configuration on the combustion characteristics of a high speed direct injection diesel engine. The KIVA code coupled with the CHEMKIN chemistry solver was used for the calculations. The calculations were performed over wide ranges of equivalence ratio and injection timing. Three nozzle-hole layouts were considered: the base line conventional nozzle, and multi- and group-hole configurations. In the multihole case, the number of holes was doubled and the hole size was reduced, while keeping the same hole area as for the base line nozzle. The group-hole configuration used the same hole number and hole size as the multihole case, but pairs of holes were grouped with a close (0.2mm) spacing between the holes. The results of the mixture distributions showed that the group-hole configuration provides similar penetration and lower inhomogeneity to those of the base line large hole nozzle with the same nozzle flow area. Consequently, the fuel consumption and pollutant emissions, such as CO and soot, are improved by using the group-hole nozzle instead of the conventional hole nozzle over wide operating ranges. On the other hand, the multihole nozzle has advantages in its fuel consumption and CO emissions over the conventional hole layout at intermediate equivalence ratios (equivalence ratios from 0.56 to 0.84) and conventional injection timings (start of injection: 15deg before top dead center).

Copyright © 2008 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

45deg sector computational mesh at top dead center

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Figure 2

Bottom-view images of group- and multiholes: (a) multi-hole (16 holes) (b) group-hole (8 groups of two holes)

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Figure 3

Configuration of group-hole nozzle (10)

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Figure 4

Measured effect of equivalence ratio on engine-out CO and CO2 mass fractions (3)

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Figure 5

Comparisons of cylinder pressure between experiments and simulations (equivalence ratio sweep, SOI: 15deg BTDC)

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Figure 6

Model validation for exhaust emissions as a function of equivalence ratio (SOI: 15deg BTDC)

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Figure 7

Comparisons of cylinder pressure between experiments and simulations (SOI sweep, ϕ=0.56)

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Figure 8

Model validation for exhaust emissions as a function of SOI timing (ϕ=0.56)

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Figure 9

Local equivalence ratio distributions at top dead center (SOI: 15deg BTDC, stoichiometric) in the plane of the spray

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Figure 10

Effect of nozzle-hole layout on the values of inhomogeneity as a function of equivalence ratio (SOI: 15deg BTDC)

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Figure 11

Fuel consumption according to the nozzle-hole layout (equivalence ratio sweep, SOI: 15deg BTDC)

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Figure 12

Accumulated heat release for selected equivalence ratios: (a) ϕ=0.48 (b) ϕ=0.67 (c) stoichiometric

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Figure 13

Access to the oxygen in the squish region at 90% total heat release (group-hole nozzle, SOI: 15deg BTDC, stoichiometric). Gray scale shows mass fraction of oxygen.

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Figure 14

Effect of nozzle-hole configuration on emissions against equivalence ratio (SOI: 15deg BTDC) (a) NOx (b) CO (c) Soot (d) HC

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Figure 15

Effect of SOI on fuel consumption: (a) ϕ=0.48 (b) ϕ=0.67 (c) stoichiometric

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Figure 16

Inhomogeneity at SOI (ϕ=0.67)

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Figure 17

Spray targeting to improve oxygen utilization (local equivalence ratio distribution at the end of injection, group hole, SOI: 40deg BTDC)

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Figure 18

Effect of SOI timing on CO emissions: (a) ϕ=0.48 (b) ϕ=0.67 (c) stoichiometric

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Figure 19

CO distribution (mass fraction) (ϕ=0.48, SOI: 30deg BTDC)

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