Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Active Control of Pressure Oscillations in a Liquid-Fueled Sector Combustor

[+] Author and Article Information
J. M. Cohen, A. Banaszuk, J. R. Hibshman, T. J. Anderson, H. A. Alholm

 United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT 06108

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 130(5), 051502 (Jun 13, 2008) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2901177 History: Received July 16, 2007; Revised August 15, 2007; Published June 13, 2008

A system for the active control of combustor pressure oscillations in liquid-fueled, lean, premixed combustors was demonstrated in a three-nozzle sector combustor, using full-scale engine hardware. Modulation of a portion of the premixed fuel flow led to a reduction of 6.5 dB (2.1 times) in the amplitude of the dominant pressure oscillations mode. Combustor emissions were not adversely affected by the control.

Copyright © 2008 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 1

Cross section of sector combustor test facility with instrumentation and actuation system

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Figure 2

Schematic of steady-state and controlled fuel systems in the sector combustor test facility

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Figure 3

Dependence of NOx and CO concentrations at combustor exit on the primary-zone equivalence ratio

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Figure 4

Dependence of combustor pressure fluctuation levels on the primary-zone equivalence ratio

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Figure 5

Power-spectrum density plots of uncontrolled combustor pressure fluctuations at two equivalence ratios, ϕ, showing shift in amplitude and frequency of the dominant mode with equivalence ratio

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Figure 6

Power-spectrum density plots of uncontrolled optical emissions (heat release rate) at two equivalence ratios, ϕ, showing shift in frequency and amplitude of the dominant mode similar to that seen in the pressure data

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Figure 7

Effect of single-nozzle open-loop forcing at 100Hz on combustor pressure spectrum

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Figure 8

Actuation authority increases linearly with the number of fuel nozzles actuated, provided the actuation is well coordinated

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Figure 9

Combustor pressure power spectra illustrating the ability of the control system to both amplify and attenuate the pressure oscillations (single-nozzle actuation)

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Figure 10

Effect of controller phase on combustor pressure fluctuation levels for single-nozzle actuation

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Figure 11

Multiple-nozzle, closed-loop actuation led to relatively small incremental reductions in pressure fluctuation levels, due to “peak-splitting” phenomenon

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Figure 12

Bode plot of combustor pressure over valve command signal, no control, equivalence ratio of 0.44

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Figure 13

Distribution of 20,000 samples of uncontrolled unsteady combustor pressure (x) and a fit with a Gaussian distribution (○)

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Figure 14

Schematic of closed-loop combustor simulation block diagram

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Figure 15

Second-order model of combustor with delay reproduces peak-splitting phenomenon (Fig. 1) in closed-loop simulation

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Figure 16

Model of the closed-loop combustor with the on-off valve characteristic simulated with its random-input describing function

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Figure 17

Nyquist diagram for single-nozzle closed-loop control near the optimum control phase, showing that the controller excited secondary peaks (“B” and “C”) and attenuated the primary peak (“A”)




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