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Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

# An Imaging Study of Compression Ignition Phenomena of Iso-Octane, Indolene, and Gasoline Fuels in a Single-Cylinder Research Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
Bradley T. Zigler1

Department of Mechanical Engineering,  University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2125bzigler@umich.edu

Stephen M. Walton, Dimitris Assanis, Elizabeth Perez, Margaret S. Wooldridge

Department of Mechanical Engineering,  University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2125

Steven T. Wooldridge

Ford Research and Advanced Engineering, Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI 48121-2053

1

Corresponding author.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 130(5), 052803 (Jun 06, 2008) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2898720 History: Received August 31, 2006; Revised January 17, 2008; Published June 06, 2008

## Abstract

High-speed imaging combined with the optical access provided by a research engine offer the ability to directly image and compare ignition and combustion phenomena of various fuels. Such data provide valuable insight into the physical and chemical mechanisms important in each system. In this study, crank-angle resolved imaging data were used to investigate homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) operation of a single-cylinder four-valve optical engine fueled using gasoline, indolene, and iso-octane. Lean operating limits were the focus of the study with the primary objective of identifying different modes of reaction front initiation and propagation for each fuel. HCCI combustion was initiated and maintained over a range of lean conditions for various fuels, from $ϕ=0.69$ to 0.27. The time-resolved imaging and pressure data show that high rates of heat release in HCCI combustion correlate temporally to simultaneous, intense volumetric blue emission. Lower rates of heat release are characteristic of spatially resolved blue emission. Gasoline supported leaner HCCI operation than indolene. Iso-octane showed a dramatic transition into misfire. Similar regions of preferential ignition were identified for each of the fuels considered using the imaging data.

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Copyright © 2008 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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## Figures

Figure 1

Schematic of the single-cylinder optical research engine

Figure 2

Orientation of the imaged frames with respect to the cylinder geometry. Intake valves are on the bottom, and exhaust valves are on top. The spark plug is shown at the center. The piston window is ø48.5mm, which partially occludes the valves.

Figure 3

Typical pressure traces versus time for engine conditions with indolene fuel. The data are superimposed for clarity. The boxed areas coincide with imaging sequences presented in Figs.  4567.

Figure 4

Image sequence for indolene at ϕ=0.69

Figure 5

Image sequence for indolene at ϕ=0.55

Figure 6

Image sequence for indolene at ϕ=0.44

Figure 7

Image sequence for indolene at ϕ=0.34

Figure 8

Typical pressure traces versus time for engine conditions with iso-octane fuel. The data are superimposed for clarity. The boxed areas coincide with imaging sequences presented in Figs.  91012.

Figure 9

Image sequence for iso-octane at ϕ=0.68

Figure 10

Image sequence for iso-octane at ϕ=0.61

Figure 11

Image sequence for iso-octane at ϕ=0.45

Figure 12

Image sequence for iso-octane at ϕ=0.29

Figure 13

Typical pressure traces versus time for engine conditions with gasoline fuel. The data are superimposed for clarity. The boxed areas coincide with imaging sequences presented in Figs.  1415161718.

Figure 14

Image sequence for gasoline at ϕ=0.65

Figure 15

Image sequence for gasoline at ϕ=0.52

Figure 16

Image sequence for gasoline at ϕ=0.45

Figure 17

Image sequence for gasoline at ϕ=0.37

Figure 18

Image sequence for gasoline at ϕ=0.27

Figure 19

Images of separate, identical HCCI firing conditions (intake air=320°C, indolene fuel at ϕ=0.69) taken at peak cylinder pressure with camera speeds at 3000fps, 9000fps, and 18,000fps. All images have been color balanced equally for clarity.

Figure 20

Image of cylinder end view showing areas of preferential ignition sites as crosshatch

Figure 21

Cylinder pressure and corresponding heat release rate for HCCI operating conditions of indolene fuel, ϕ=0.57, intake air temperature=318°C. See text for details of the calculation used to determine dQ∕dt.

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