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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Manufacturing, Materials, and Metallurgy

Biaxial Thermomechanical-Fatigue Life Property of a Directionally Solidified Ni-Base Superalloy

[+] Author and Article Information
Takashi Ogata

 Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, 2-11-1 Iwadokita, Komae, Tokyo 201-8511, Japantogata@criepi.denken.or.jp

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 130(6), 062101 (Aug 21, 2008) (5 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2943158 History: Received January 14, 2008; Revised February 18, 2008; Published August 21, 2008

High-temperature components in thermal power plants are subjected to creep-fatigue loading where creep cavities initiate and grow on grain boundaries. Development of life assessment methods of high-temperature components in gas turbine for maintenance and operating cost reduction is strongly demanded by Japanese utilities. Especially, first row blades are subjected to complicated thermomechanical-fatigue (TMF) loading during start, steady state, stop cycles. Therefore it is important to clarify the TMF life property of blade materials to develop a life assessment procedure. In this study, tension-torsion biaxial TMF tests have been performed between 450°C and 870°C on a Ni-base directional solidified superalloy. Strain ratio ϕ was defined as shear strain range, Δγ, to normal strain range, Δε, and ϕ varied from 0 to infinity. The “Blade wave form,” which simulated temperature and strain condition of the blade surface, was employed. The biaxial TMF tests were also carried out on coated specimens with CoCrAlY. Fatigue life under the biaxial TMF loading showed strain ratio dependency giving shorter life with increasing ϕ. Considering biaxial stress effect on the failure life, an equivalent shear strain range was derived based on the Γ-plane theory, and the biaxial TMF life was well correlated with the equivalent shear strain range. The biaxial TMF life was reduced by introducing strain hold duration at the maximum temperature. The maximum stress increased by introducing the hold time due to increasing mean stress level in the Blade wave form. It was concluded that creep damage gradually accumulated during cycles resulting in reduction in the TMF life. The nonlinear creep-fatigue damage accumulation model was applied to predict failure life of the hold time tests. As a result, the failure lives were predicted within a factor of 1.5 on the observed life. It was found that the fatigue life of CoCrAlY coated material reduced 12 to 13 from that of the substrate. From observation of the longitudinal section of the coated specimens, many cracks started from the coating surface and penetrated into the substrate. It was concluded that the CoCrAlY coating reduced the biaxial TMF life due to acceleration of crack initiation period in the substrate.

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Copyright © 2008 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Biaxial TMF test specimen geometry

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Figure 2

Blade wave form TMF test condition

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Figure 3

Axial cross sections of failure specimens under the Blade wave form

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Figure 4

Typical microvoids on dendrite boundaries

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Figure 5

Biaxial TMF life correlated with Mises equivalent strain range

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Figure 6

Γ-plane obtained from TMF life of DS superalloy

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Figure 7

Biaxial TMF life correlated with the equivalent shear strain range, Δγ¯

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Figure 8

Strain hold time effect on biaxial TMF life

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Figure 9

TMF life prediction results based on the “NLDA model”

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Figure 10

Comparison of TMF life between substrate and coated material under Blade wave form

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Figure 11

Strain hold time effect on TMF life of coated material

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