0
Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Properties, Characteristics, and Combustion Performance of Sasol Fully Synthetic Jet Fuel

[+] Author and Article Information
Clifford A. Moses

 Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78228

Petrus N. Roets

 Sasol Technology Fuels Research, Houston, TX 77224

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 131(4), 041502 (Apr 16, 2009) (17 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3028234 History: Received May 07, 2008; Revised May 25, 2008; Published April 16, 2009

In 1999, as the only inland petroleum refinery in South Africa was reaching capacity, Sasol gained approval of a semisynthetic jet fuel (SSJF) for civil aviation to augment production and meet the growing demand for jet fuel at the airport in Johannesburg. Prior to this, all jet fuel had to be refined from petroleum sources. SSJF consists of up to 50% of an isoparaffinic kerosene produced from coal using Fischer–Tropsch processes. The production of SSJF remains vulnerable to the production capacity of conventional jet fuel, however. To ensure supply, Sasol has proposed producing a fully synthetic jet fuel (FSJF) using synthetic kerosene streams that contain aromatics and satisfy all the property requirements of international specifications for jet fuel. Being fully synthetic, it was necessary to demonstrate that the fuel is “fit-for-purpose” as jet fuel, i.e., behaves like conventional jet fuel in all aspects of storage and handling as well as air worthiness and flight safety. Four sample blends were developed, covering the practical range of production. Extensive tests on chemistry and physical properties and characteristics demonstrated that Sasol FSJF will be typical of conventional jet fuel. As a final demonstration, the engine manufacturers requested a series of engine and combustor tests to evaluate combustion characteristics, emissions, engine durability, and performance. The performance of the synthetic test fuel was typical of conventional jet fuel. This paper identifies the tests and presents the results demonstrating that Sasol fully synthetic jet fuel is fit-for-purpose as jet fuel for civilian aviation. Sasol FSJF is the first fully synthetic jet fuel approved for unrestricted use.

Copyright © 2009 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Topics: Fuels , Jet fuels , Engines
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 1

Production schematic for Sasol fully synthetic jet fuel

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 2

Distribution of saturates and aromatics in Sasol synthetic kerosene blends

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 3

JFTOT deposit map for Sasol FSJF with Code 1 deposit

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 4

JFTOT deposit map for conventional fuel with Code 3 deposit

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 5

Effect of Sasol synthetic jet fuel on swell of common fuel-system elastomers

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 6

Effect of Sasol synthetic jet fuel on hardness of common fuel-system elastomers

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 7

Effect of Sasol synthetic jet fuel on the tensile strength of common fuel-system elastomers

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 8

Lubricity of Sasol FSJF blends

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 9

Viscosity characteristics of Sasol FSJF blends

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 10

Density characteristics of Sasol FSJF blends

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 11

Bulk modulus of Sasol FSJF blends

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 12

Specific heat characteristics of Sasol FSJF blends

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 13

Boiling point distribution of test fuel

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 14

Test cycle for JT-9D performance/endurance test of SSJF

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 15

Atomization of Sasol FSJF compared with Jet A at −40°C(−40°F) in a pressure atomizer

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 16

Comparison of fuel sprays at −40°C(−40°F) and 50psi(gauge) for Sasol fuel and jet a

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 17

Spray characteristics of Sasol FSJF in an air blast atomizer

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 18

Comparison of NOx production for Sasol fuel and conventional Jet A

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 19

Comparison of CO production for Sasol fuel and conventional Jet A

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 20

Comparison of smoke number for Sasol fuel and conventional Jet A

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 21

Map of test conditions for ignition and extinction tests

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 22

Boiling point distributions of test fuels for ignition and altitude relight tests

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 23

Schematic representation of the extinction and ignition performance for a ground ambient cold-day (−40°C) condition

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 24

Schematic representation of the altitude ignition results

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 25

Comparison of boiling point distributions of the test fuels used in the Honeywell LBO tests

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 26

Comparison of fuel effects on lean blowout characteristics

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In