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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Biodiesel as an Alternative Fuel in Siemens Dry Low Emissions Combustors: Atmospheric and High Pressure Rig Testing

[+] Author and Article Information
Kexin Liu1

 Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery Ltd., P.O. Box 1, Waterside South, Lincoln LN5 7FD, UKkexin.liu@siemens.com

John P. Wood2

 Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery Ltd., P.O. Box 1, Waterside South, Lincoln LN5 7FD, UKjpwood@qinetiq.com

Eoghan R. Buchanan, Pete Martin, Victoria E. Sanderson

 Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery Ltd., P.O. Box 1, Waterside South, Lincoln LN5 7FD, UK

1

Corresponding author.

2

Now in QineitiQ, Cody Technology Park, Farnborough GU14 0LX, UK.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 132(1), 011501 (Sep 14, 2009) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3204617 History: Received March 24, 2009; Revised March 30, 2009; Published September 14, 2009

Atmospheric and high pressure rig tests were conducted to investigate the feasibility of using biodiesel as an alternative fuel to power industrial gas turbines in one of the world’s leading dry low emissions (DLE) combustion systems, the SGT-100. At the same conditions, tests were also carried out for mineral diesel to provide reference information to evaluate biodiesel as an alternative fuel. In atmospheric pressure rig tests, the likelihood of the machine lighting was identified based on the measured probability of the ignition of a single combustor. Lean ignition and extinction limits at various air temperatures were also investigated with different air assist pressures. The ignition test results reveal that reliable ignition can be achieved with biodiesel across a range of air mass flow rates and air fuel ratios (AFRs). In high pressure rig tests, emissions and combustion dynamics were measured for various combustor air inlet pressures, temperatures, combustor wall pressure drops, and flame temperatures. These high pressure rig results show that biodiesel produced less NOx than mineral diesel. The test results indicate that the Siemens DLE combustion system can be adapted to use biodiesel as an alternative fuel without major modification.

Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Siemens DLE combustor construction

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Figure 2

Siemens DLE combustor family

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Figure 3

Siemens DLE combustion concept

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Figure 4

Conceptual details of fuel injectors and air paths

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Figure 5

Probability of engine lighting, fueled with biodiesel and calculated from single combustor tests for three different air assist pressures: (a) 2.31 bar, (b) 2.72 bar, and (c) 3.21 bar

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Figure 6

Lean ignition limit for SGT-100 burning biodiesel at different ambient air temperatures at an air assist pressure of 2.72 bar, and the comparison with diesel

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Figure 7

Effect of air assist pressure on SGT-100 lean ignition limit burning biodiesel at ambient air temperature of 15°C

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Figure 8

Effect of ambient air temperature on SGT-100 lean extinction limit burning biodiesel at air assist pressure of 2.72 bar

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Figure 9

The effect of the flame temperature and combustor pressure drop on NOx emission for biodiesel at two different air inlet pressures, and its comparison with diesel

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Figure 10

Activation temperatures for biodiesel and diesel fuel at different air inlet pressures and combustor pressure drops

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Figure 11

Comparison of NOx emissions from biodiesel and diesel after FBN correction

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Figure 12

The effect of flame temperature, combustor pressure drop on CO emission of biodiesel at two inlet pressures, and its comparison with diesel

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Figure 13

Comparison of UHC emissions from biodiesel and diesel at two inlet pressures

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Figure 14

Comparison of combustion dynamics fueled with biodiesel and diesel at an air inlet pressure of 14 bar

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Figure 15

SMD droplet diameter for biodiesel (solid line) and diesel (dashed line) at different air inlet pressures and combustor pressure drops

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