Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Laboratory Investigations of Low-Swirl Injectors Operating With Syngases

[+] Author and Article Information
David Littlejohn, Robert K. Cheng

Environmental Energy Technology Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720

D. R. Noble, Tim Lieuwen

School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332

Linear dependency of ST on u is not universal as ST in other burners tends to be nonlinear and shows “bending” (15).

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 132(1), 011502 (Sep 30, 2009) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3124662 History: Received April 04, 2008; Revised May 12, 2008; Published September 30, 2009

The low-swirl injector (LSI) is a lean premixed combustion technology that has the potential for adaptation to fuel-flexible gas turbines operating on a variety of fuels. The objective of this study is to gain a fundamental understanding of the effect of syngas on the LSI flame behavior, the emissions, and the flowfield characteristics for adaptation to the combustion turbines in integrated gasification combined cycle clean coal power plants. The experiments were conducted in two facilities. Open atmospheric laboratory flames generated by a full size (6.35 cm) LSI were used to investigate the lean blow-off limits, emissions, and the flowfield characteristics. Verification of syngas operation at elevated temperatures and pressures were performed with a reduced scale (2.54 cm) LSI in a small pressurized combustion channel. The results show that the basic LSI design is amenable to burning syngases with up to 60% H2. Syngases with high H2 concentration have lower lean blow-off limits. From particle image velocimetry measurements, the flowfield similarity behavior and the turbulent flame speeds of syngases flames are consistent with those observed in hydrocarbon and pure or diluted hydrogen flames. The NOx emissions from syngas flames show log-linear dependency on the adiabatic flame temperature and are comparable to those reported for the gaseous fuels reported previously. Successful firing of the reduced-scale LSI at 450K<T<505K and 8 atm verified the operability of this concept at gas turbine conditions.

Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 1

LSI prototype for Taurus 70 engine

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Figure 2

Schematics of the LSI setup for atmospheric studies

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Figure 3

Lean blow-off limits determined for simulated dry syngases CH4 and H2

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Figure 4

NOx and CO emissions of LSI fueled with syngases compared with results from other LSI tests with hydrocarbons and hydrogen at laboratory and gas turbine conditions

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Figure 5

Normalized velocity vectors for syngas flames at U0=14 m/s and Tad≈1700 K. The top continuous lines mark the boundaries of the recirculation bubble, and lower dashed lines mark the leading edges of the flame brushes.

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Figure 6

Centerline profiles of the syngas flames with Tad≈1600 K: (a) mean axial velocity and (b) turbulent kinetic energy

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Figure 7

Radial profiles (at x=10 mm) of the syngas flames with Tad≈1600 K: (a) mean axial velocity, (b) mean radial velocity, and (c) turbulent kinetic energy. Legend same as for Fig. 6.

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Figure 8

Turbulent flame speed correlation for LSI flames with fuel blends consisting of H2, CH4, CO, N2, and CO2

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Figure 9

Syngas compositions evaluated at a 75 cm ID pressurized combustor

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Figure 10

Equivalence ratios of the high pressured syngas experiments

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Figure 11

Luminosity images of syngas flames generated by a reduced scale LSI captured by a camcorder



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