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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Flame Transfer Functions for Liquid-Fueled Swirl-Stabilized Turbulent Lean Direct Fuel Injection Combustion

[+] Author and Article Information
Tongxun Yi1

Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802tzy1@psu.edu

Domenic A. Santavicca

Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802

1

Corresponding author.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 132(2), 021506 (Nov 11, 2009) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3157101 History: Received March 20, 2009; Revised March 22, 2009; Published November 11, 2009; Online November 11, 2009

Heat release rate responses to inlet fuel modulations, i.e., the flame transfer function (FTF), are measured for a turbulent, liquid-fueled, swirl-stabilized lean direct fuel injection combustor. Fuel modulations are achieved using a motor-driven rotary fuel valve designed specially for this purpose, which is capable of fuel modulations of up to 1 kHz. Small-amplitude fuel modulations, typically below 2.0% of the mean fuel, are applied in this study. There is almost no change in FTFs at different fuel-modulation amplitudes, implying that the derived FTFs are linear and that the induced heat release rate oscillations mainly respond to variations in the instantaneous fuel flow rate rather than in the droplet size and distribution. The gain and phases of the FTFs at different air flow rates and preheat temperatures are examined. The instantaneous fuel flow rate is determined from pressure measurements upstream of a fuel nozzle. Applications of the FTF to modeling and control of combustion instability and lean blowout are discussed.

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Figures

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Figure 1

The combustion rig, optical setup, and the rotary fuel actuator

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Figure 2

Flame transfer function W0(s). The mean fuel pressure is 453 kPa, the air flow rate is 66.7 g/s, the equivalence ratio is 0.34, and the preheat temperature is 473 K. The fuel-modulation ratio is typically below 2.0%. The combustor is fueled with 1-Decene.

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Figure 3

(a) Flame transfer function Wm(s) measured at different days and (b) the fuel-modulation ratio. The mean fuel pressure is 453 kPa, the air flow rate is 66.7 g/s, the equivalence ratio is 0.34, and the preheat temperature is 473 K. The fuel-modulation ratio is typically below 2.0%.

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Figure 4

Flame transfer function W0(s) versus Bode plots of the low-order model

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Figure 5

Flame transfer function W0(s) at different air flow rates. The fuel-modulation ratio is typically below 2.0%, the preheat temperature is 473 K, and the fuel flow rate is 1.4 g/s.

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Figure 6

Flame transfer function Wm(s) at different preheat temperature. The air flow rate is 66.7 g/s, and the equivalence ratio is 0.31.

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